Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics by self-report daily TV viewing time. Values are numbers and percentages unless otherwise stated

From: The association between recreational screen time and cancer risk: findings from the UK Biobank, a large prospective cohort study

   Total TV viewing time
Total ≤1 h per day 1- ≤ 3 h per day 3- ≤ 5 h per day > 5 h/day
No./mean %/SD No./mean %/SD No./mean %/SD No./mean %/SD No./mean %/SD
Total participants 470,578 100.0% 97,419 20.7% 236,988 50.4% 110,334 23.5% 25,837 5.5%
Self-report total screen time (hours/day; mean/SD) 3.9 2.1 2.0 1.5 3.5 1.4 5.3 1.4 7.9 2.4
Time spent watching TV (hours/day; mean/SD) 2.8 1.7 0.7 0.4 2.5 0.5 4.3 0.5 6.9 1.8
Time spent using computers (hours/day; mean/SD) 1.1 1.4 1.2 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.0 1.3 1.1 1.7
IPAQ physical activity (mean/SD)
 Hours/day of walking 0.75 0.78 0.71 0.74 0.76 0.79 0.77 0.79 0.67 0.74
 Hours/day of moderate-intensity physical activity 0.56 0.72 0.54 0.70 0.57 0.73 0.58 0.74 0.46 0.67
 Hours/day of vigorous-intensity physical activity 0.20 0.35 0.22 0.34 0.20 0.35 0.18 0.35 0.14 0.33
Age at baseline (mean/SD) 56.3 8.1 54.2 8.0 55.9 8.1 58.5 7.6 59.0 7.6
Height (m) (mean/SD) 1.7 0.1 1.7 0.1 1.7 0.1 1.7 0.1 1.7 0.1
Sex
 Female 253,188 53.8% 53,500 54.9% 127,135 53.7% 59,553 54.0% 13,000 50.3%
 Male 217,390 46.2% 43,919 45.1% 109,853 46.4% 50,781 46.0% 12,837 49.7%
Ethnicity
 White 443,484 94.6% 90,405 93.3% 224,142 94.9% 104,922 95.4% 24,015 93.3%
 Black 7505 1.6% 1549 1.6% 3358 1.4% 1846 1.7% 752 2.9%
 South Asian 9395 2.0% 2582 2.7% 4721 2.0% 1639 1.5% 453 1.8%
 Chinese 1501 0.3% 465 0.5% 717 0.3% 266 0.2% 53 0.2%
 Mixed background or others 7069 1.5% 1949 2.0% 3299 1.4% 1354 1.2% 467 1.8%
Townsend deprivation quintile
 1 (Least deprived) 94,590 20.1% 19,860 20.4% 51,164 21.6% 20,497 18.6% 3069 11.9%
 2 93,950 20.0% 18,854 19.4% 49,804 21.0% 21,691 19.7% 3601 14.0%
 3 94,166 20.0% 18,857 19.4% 48,706 20.6% 22,379 20.3% 4224 16.4%
 4 94,118 20.0% 20,209 20.8% 46,505 19.7% 22,081 20.0% 5323 20.6%
 5 (Most deprived) 93,165 19.8% 19,530 20.1% 40,495 17.1% 23,561 21.4% 9579 37.1%
Education
 University degree 153,223 33.1% 52,250 54.3% 79,041 33.9% 19,257 17.8% 2675 10.6%
 A-levels/HNC/HND/NVQ 83,315 18.0% 15,934 16.6% 44,649 19.1% 18,921 17.5% 3811 15.1%
 GCSE/O-level/CSE 124,765 26.9% 17,518 18.2% 66,180 28.3% 34,257 31.6% 6810 27.0%
 Other 24,018 5.2% 4230 4.4% 12,530 5.4% 6091 5.6% 1167 4.6%
 None 78,028 16.8% 6346 6.6% 31,125 13.3% 29,800 27.5% 10,757 42.7%
Smoking statusa
 Never 257,696 55.0% 58,981 60.7% 132,976 56.3% 54,858 49.9% 10,881 42.4%
 Former light smoker 119,085 25.4% 24,556 25.3% 61,147 25.9% 27,891 25.4% 5491 21.4%
 Former heavy smoker 42,251 9.0% 5350 5.5% 19,256 8.2% 13,521 12.3% 4124 16.1%
 Current light smoker 27,794 5.9% 5535 5.7% 13,706 5.8% 6646 6.1% 1907 7.4%
 Current heavy smoker 22,082 4.7% 2735 2.8% 9094 3.9% 6972 6.3% 3281 12.8%
Alcohol intake
 Never 20,749 4.4% 4873 5.0% 9428 4.0% 4868 4.4% 1580 6.1%
 Former drinker 16,659 3.5% 3330 3.4% 7128 3.0% 4342 3.9% 1859 7.2%
 Current drinker: <once/week 106,020 22.6% 19,466 20.0% 50,958 21.5% 27,939 25.3% 7657 29.7%
 Current drinker: ≥once/week 326,759 69.5% 69,676 71.6% 169,324 71.5% 73,089 66.3% 14,670 56.9%
Dietary intake (mean/SD)
 Fruits and vegetables (portion/day) 4.7 3.1 5.1 3.2 4.7 3.0 4.5 3.0 4.2 3.3
 Red meat (portion/week) 2.1 1.5 2.0 1.4 2.1 1.4 2.2 1.5 2.4 1.7
 Processed meat (portion/week) 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.9 1.6
Body Mass Index (Kg/m2) (mean/SD) 27.4 4.8 26.0 4.3 27.3 4.6 28.5 4.9 29.7 5.8
Body Mass Index (Kg/m2)
  < 18.5 2418 0.5% 825 0.9% 1113 0.5% 352 0.3% 128 0.5%
 18.5- < 25 152,533 32.6% 44,075 45.5% 77,507 32.9% 26,157 23.8% 4794 18.8%
 25- < 30 199,212 42.6% 37,528 38.7% 103,141 43.7% 48,586 44.3% 9957 39.1%
 30+ 113,922 24.3% 14,489 15.0% 54,197 23.0% 34,626 31.6% 10,610 41.6%
Body fat percentage (mean/SD) 31.3 8.5 28.9 8.3 31.1 8.4 33.2 8.4 34.3 8.8
Waist:hip ratiob
 Waist:hip ratio (mean/SD) 0.9 0.1 0.9 0.1 0.9 0.1 0.9 0.1 0.9 0.1
 Below IDF guideline 202,545 43.2% 54,750 56.4% 104,482 44.2% 36,717 33.4% 6596 25.7%
 Above IDF guideline 266,443 56.8% 42,333 43.6% 131,829 55.8% 73,249 66.6% 19,032 74.3%
Health status
 Diabetesc 24,347 5.2% 3085 3.2% 10,404 4.4% 7687 7.0% 3171 12.4%
 Gastro-oesophageal refluxd 22,495 4.8% 3233 3.3% 10,672 4.5% 6648 6.0% 1942 7.5%
Family historye
 Prostate cancer 37,225 8.0% 8431 8.8% 18,607 8.0% 8332 7.7% 1855 7.3%
 Breast cancer 49,524 10.7% 10,520 10.9% 24,986 10.7% 11,360 10.5% 2658 10.5%
 Lung cancer 59,042 12.7% 9596 10.0% 29,218 12.5% 16,107 14.9% 4121 16.3%
 Bowel cancer 52,109 11.2% 10,181 10.6% 25,851 11.1% 12,943 11.9% 3134 12.4%
Use of sun/UV protection
 Never/rarely/sometimes 203,968 43.7% 43,450 44.9% 99,121 42.1% 48,286 44.1% 13,111 51.4%
 Most of the time/always 260,241 55.7% 52,699 54.5% 135,033 57.4% 60,493 55.3% 12,016 47.1%
 Do not go out in sunshine 2770 0.6% 538 0.6% 1136 0.5% 717 0.7% 379 1.5%
Aspirin use
 Regularly uses aspirinf 64,822 14.0% 9711 10.1% 29,908 12.9% 19,246 17.8% 5957 23.7%
HRT useg
 Ever used HRT 95,369 37.8% 14,791 27.8% 46,587 36.8% 27,639 46.6% 6352 49.1%
Oral contraceptive useg
 Ever taken oral contraceptive pill 205,528 81.4% 44,285 83.0% 104,772 82.7% 46,695 78.7% 9776 75.6%
Number of live births (0, 1, 2, 3+ live births)g(mean/SD) 1.8 1.2 1.8 1.2 1.8 1.2 1.9 1.2 2.0 1.3
Age at menarche (mean/SD)g 13.0 1.6 13.0 1.6 13.0 1.6 13.0 1.7 13.0 1.7
Age at menopause (mean/SD)g 49.8 5.1 50.0 4.7 49.9 5.0 49.6 5.4 49.0 5.8
Menopausal statusg
 Had menopause 151,101 59.8% 27,736 51.9% 74,075 58.4% 40,399 68.0% 8891 68.6%
 Not had menopause 62,570 24.8% 18,659 34.9% 33,174 26.1% 9075 15.3% 1662 12.8%
 Unsure 39,065 15.5% 7002 13.1% 19,684 15.5% 9969 16.8% 2410 18.6%
Hysterectomy statusg
 Had hysterectomy 17,530 7.8% 2458 5.0% 8193 7.2% 5483 10.6% 1396 12.7%
 Not had hysterectomy/unsure 207,953 92.2% 46,846 95.0% 105,238 92.8% 46,232 89.4% 9637 87.4%
  1. CSE: Certificate of Secondary Education; GCSE: General Certificate of Secondary Education; HNC: Higher National Certificate; HND: Higher National Diploma; HRT: hormone-replacement therapy; IDF: International Diabetes Federation; MVPA: moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity; NVQ: National Vocational Qualifications; UV: ultraviolet
  2. aDefined in terms of pack-years: light (< 20 pack-years), heavy (≥20 pack-years)
  3. bBased on IDF criteria (waist circumference > 94 cm in men; > 80 cm in women)
  4. cDiagnosed by doctor
  5. dSelf-reported
  6. eBased on self-reported illnesses of father, mother and siblings
  7. fRegular use defined as most days of the week for the last 4 weeks
  8. gFemale participants only