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Table 2 Results of Cox proportional hazards analyses investigating the association between self-report daily TV viewing time and cancer incidence

From: The association between recreational screen time and cancer risk: findings from the UK Biobank, a large prospective cohort study

   1 h increase in TV viewing time p-value ≤1 h 1- ≤ 3 h (reference) 3- ≤ 5 h > 5 h
Person-years   3,526,324   736,537 1,781,542 818,674 189,571
Skin, melanoma Cases 1635   315 831 404 85
HR (95% CI)* 0.98 (0.95 1.01) 0.24** 0.99 (0.87 1.12) 1.00 0.96 (0.85 1.08) 0.84 (0.67 1.06)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.97 1.04) 0.74 0.99 (0.87 1.13) 1.00 1.004 (0.89 1.14) 1.01 (0.80 1.29)
  HR (95% CI)a 1.004 (0.97 1.04) 0.84 1.01 (0.88 1.15) 1.00 1.001 (0.88 1.13) 1.02 (0.81 1.30)
Oropharyngeal Cases 557   86 263 148 60
  HR (95% CI)* 1.12 (1.08 1.17) < 0.001 0.83 (0.65 1.06) 1.00 1.17 (0.96 1.43) 1.99 (1.50 2.63)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.06 (1.02 1.11) 0.009 0.83 (0.64 1.07) 1.00 1.07 (0.87 1.32) 1.48 (1.09 2.01)
  HR (95% CI) 1.06 (1.02 1.11) 0.009 0.83 (0.64 1.07) 1.00 1.07 (0.87 1.32) 1.48 (1.09 2.01)
Lung Cases 2076   236 901 656 283
HR (95% CI)* 1.17 (1.14 1.19) < 0.001** 0.74 (0.64 0.86) 1.00 1.29 (1.17 1.43) 2.28 (1.99 2.61)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.02 (0.995 1.04) 0.12** 0.87 (0.75 1.01) 1.00 0.98 (0.88 1.09) 1.09 (0.93 1.26)
  HR (95% CI)h 1.02 (0.997 1.05) 0.09** 0.85 (0.73 0.997) 1.00 0.98 (0.88 1.09) 1.09 (0.94 1.27)
Breast (female only) Cases 5702   1097 2903 1386 316
HR (95% CI)* 1.01 (0.99 1.02) 0.43 0.93 (0.87 1.002) 1.00 0.97 (0.91 1.03) 1.003 (0.89 1.13)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.003 (0.98 1.02) 0.77** 0.94 (0.88 1.01) 1.00 0.96 (0.90 1.03) 0.99 (0.87 1.12)
  HR (95% CI)b, h 1.01 (0.99 1.03) 0.59** 0.92 (0.85 0.996) 1.00 0.95 (0.88 1.02) 1.01 (0.87 1.16)
Uterus Cases 872   151 411 264 46
  HR (95% CI)* 1.04 (0.999 1.08) 0.053 0.97 (0.81 1.17) 1.00 1.21 (1.03 1.41) 0.95 (0.70 1.28)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.97 (0.93 1.02) 0.21 1.05 (0.86 1.27) 1.00 1.05 (0.89 1.24) 0.63 (0.44 0.88)
  HR (95% CI)c 0.97 (0.93 1.02) 0.24 1.03 (0.84 1.27) 1.00 1.04 (0.87 1.24) 0.61 (0.42 0.88)
Ovary Cases 578   105 287 155 31
  HR (95% CI)* 1.002 (0.95 1.05) 0.93 0.95 (0.76 1.19) 1.00 1.02 (0.84 1.24) 0.91 (0.63 1.32)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.02 (0.96 1.08) 0.53 0.90 (0.71 1.15) 1.00 1.04 (0.84 1.27) 0.93 (0.63 1.38)
  HR (95% CI) 1.02 (0.96 1.08) 0.53 0.90 (0.71 1.15) 1.00 1.04 (0.84 1.27) 0.93 (0.63 1.38)
Prostate Cases 5979   1116 2957 1562 344
  HR (95% CI)* 0.96 (0.95 0.98) < 0.001** 1.08 (1.01 1.15) 1.00 0.96 (0.90 1.02) 0.81 (0.73 0.91)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.99 (0.97 1.004) 0.12** 1.05 (0.98 1.13) 1.00 1.01 (0.94 1.07) 0.94 (0.83 1.06)
  HR (95% CI)h 0.99 (0.97 1.01) 0.17** 1.04 (0.97 1.12) 1.00 1.01 (0.95 1.08) 0.95 (0.84 1.07)
Oesophagus Cases 541   70 246 176 49
  HR (95% CI)* 1.10 (1.05 1.15) < 0.001 0.80 (0.61 1.04) 1.00 1.30 (1.07 1.58) 1.44 (1.06 1.96)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.03 (0.98 1.08) 0.31** 0.85 (0.64 1.13) 1.00 1.09 (0.89 1.34) 1.02 (0.73 1.42)
  HR (95% CI)f 1.02 (0.97 1.08) 0.34** 0.86 (0.65 1.14) 1.00 1.09 (0.88 1.34) 1.02 (0.73 1.42)
Stomach Cases 356   36 164 121 35
  HR (95% CI)* 1.14 (1.08 1.20) < 0.001 0.61 (0.43 0.88) 1.00 1.34 (1.06 1.70) 1.55 (1.08 2.24)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.06 (1.001 1.13) 0.045 0.66 (0.45 0.97) 1.00 1.12 (0.87 1.44) 1.03 (0.69 1.53)
  HR (95% CI) 1.06 (1.001 1.13) 0.045 0.66 (0.45 0.97) 1.00 1.12 (0.87 1.44) 1.03 (0.69 1.53)
Oesophagus and stomach Cases 891   105 405 297 84
  HR (95% CI)* 1.12 (1.08 1.15) < 0.001 0.73 (0.59 0.90) 1.00 1.33 (1.15 1.55) 1.50 (1.19 1.90)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.04 (1.005 1.09) 0.03 0.78 (0.62 0.98) 1.00 1.12 (0.95 1.31) 1.04 (0.81 1.34)
  HR (95% CI) 1.04 (1.005 1.09) 0.03 0.78 (0.62 0.98) 1.00 1.12 (0.95 1.31) 1.04 (0.81 1.34)
Hepatobiliary tract Cases 456   74 203 130 49
  HR (95% CI)* 1.08 (1.03 1.14) 0.002 1.02 (0.78 1.33) 1.00 1.15 (0.93 1.44) 1.77 (1.30 2.43)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.96 1.07) 0.62 1.08 (0.82 1.43) 1.00 0.98 (0.78 1.24) 1.26 (0.90 1.77)
  HR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.96 1.07) 0.62 1.08 (0.82 1.43) 1.00 0.98 (0.78 1.24) 1.26 (0.90 1.77)
Pancreatic Cases 615   97 283 187 48
  HR (95% CI)* 1.07 (1.02 1.11) 0.004 0.96 (0.76 1.21) 1.00 1.19 (0.99 1.43) 1.25 (0.92 1.70)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.04 (0.99 1.09) 0.15 0.99 (0.78 1.27) 1.00 1.12 (0.92 1.36) 1.07 (0.77 1.49)
  HR (95% CI)d 1.03 (0.98 1.08) 0.20 0.996 (0.78 1.27) 1.00 1.11 (0.92 1.36) 1.03 (0.74 1.44)
Kidney Cases 779   113 390 206 70
  HR (95% CI)* 1.06 (1.02 1.10) 0.007 0.79 (0.64 0.98) 1.00 0.99 (0.83 1.17) 1.37 (1.06 1.76)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.996 (0.95 1.04) 0.86** 0.92 (0.74 1.14) 1.00 0.88 (0.74 1.05) 1.08 (0.82 1.42)
  HR (95% CI) 0.996 (0.95 1.04) 0.86** 0.92 (0.74 1.14) 1.00 0.88 (0.74 1.05) 1.08 (0.82 1.42)
Bladder Cases 677   92 295 221 69
  HR (95% CI)* 1.10 (1.05 1.14) < 0.001 0.90 (0.71 1.14) 1.00 1.32 (1.10 1.57) 1.62 (1.25 2.11)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.04 (0.99 1.09) 0.13** 1.04 (0.81 1.32) 1.00 1.21 (1.002 1.45) 1.29 (0.97 1.73)
  HR (95% CI) 1.04 (0.99 1.09) 0.13** 1.04 (0.81 1.32) 1.00 1.21 (1.002 1.45) 1.29 (0.97 1.73)
Colorectal Cases 3358   538 1643 936 241
  HR (95% CI)* 1.03 (1.01 1.05) 0.001** 0.90 (0.82 0.99) 1.00 1.05 (0.97 1.14) 1.11 (0.97 1.28)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.02 (0.999 1.04) 0.07** 0.93 (0.84 1.03) 1.00 1.03 (0.94 1.12) 1.05 (0.90 1.22)
  HR (95% CI)e, g, f (males) 1.02 (0.995 1.04) 0.13** 0.93 (0.83 1.03) 1.00 1.02 (0.93 1.11) 1.03 (0.88 1.20)
Colon Cases 2155   329 1041 614 171
  HR (95% CI)* 1.05 (1.02 1.08) < 0.001** 0.87 (0.77 0.99) 1.00 1.08 (0.98 1.19) 1.24 (1.05 1.45)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.04 (1.01 1.07) 0.007** 0.92 (0.81 1.05) 1.00 1.05 (0.94 1.17) 1.19 (1.003 1.42)
  HR (95% CI)e, g, f (males) 1.04 (1.01 1.06) 0.02** 0.93 (0.81 1.06) 1.00 1.05 (0.94 1.16) 1.17 (0.98 1.41)
Rectum Cases 1127   196 556 307 68
  HR (95% CI)* 1.01 (0.98 1.05) 0.53** 0.96 (0.81 1.13) 1.00 1.04 (0.90 1.20) 0.94 (0.73121)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.996 (0.96 1.04) 0.84** 0.98 (0.82 1.16) 1.00 1.04 (0.89 1.20) 0.84 (0.63 1.11)
  HR (95% CI)e, g 0.99 (0.95 1.03) 0.67 0.96 (0.81 1.14) 1.00 1.01 (0.87 1.18) 0.82 (0.62 1.10)
Brain tumours Cases 463   82 237 114 30
  HR (95% CI)* 1.03 (0.98 1.08) 0.29 0.92 (0.72 1.19) 1.00 0.93 (0.74 1.16) 1.003 (0.69 1.47)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.04 (0.98 1.10) 0.20 0.87 (0.66 1.13) 1.00 0.92 (0.73 1.17) 0.96 (0.63 1.46)
  HR (95% CI) 1.04 (0.98 1.10) 0.20 0.87 (0.66 1.13) 1.00 0.92 (0.73 1.17) 0.96 (0.63 1.46)
Thyroid Cases 242   48 124 57 13
  HR (95% CI)* 0.99 (0.91 1.07) 0.75 0.95 (0.68 1.32) 1.00 0.97 (0.70 1.33) 0.97 (0.55 1.73)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.001 (0.92 1.09) 0.98 0.92 (0.65 1.30) 1.00 0.93 (0.66 1.32) 1.14 (0.63 2.06)
  HR (95% CI) 1.001 (0.92 1.09) 0.98 0.92 (0.65 1.30) 1.00 0.93 (0.66 1.32) 1.14 (0.63 2.06)
Haematological malignancies Cases 2468   438 1208 652 170
  HR (95% CI)* 1.01 (0.98 1.03) 0.52 0.995 (0.89 1.11) 1.00 0.99 (0.90 1.09) 1.06 (0.91 1.25)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.002 (0.98 1.03) 0.89 0.97 (0.87 1.09) 1.00 0.97 (0.88 1.08) 0.97 (0.82 1.16)
  HR (95% CI) 1.002 (0.98 1.03) 0.89 0.97 (0.87 1.09) 1.00 0.97 (0.88 1.08) 0.97 (0.82 1.16)
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Cases 1193   197 586 337 73
  HR (95% CI)* 1.01 (0.98 1.05) 0.44 0.92 (0.78 1.08) 1.00 1.06 (0.93 1.21) 0.95 (0.74 1.21)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.98 1.05) 0.48 0.89 (0.75 1.05) 1.00 1.08 (0.93 1.24) 0.85 (0.65 1.11)
  HR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.98 1.05) 0.48 0.89 (0.75 1.05) 1.00 1.08 (0.93 1.24) 0.85 (0.65 1.11)
  1. *Models adjusted for age and sex (total observations = 470,578)
  2. †Models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity (white/other), deprivation index (quintiles), education (University degree, A-levels/HNC/HND/NVQ, GCSE/O-level/CSE, OTHER, None), fruit and vegetable intake (< 5 portions/day, ≥5 portions/day), BMI (kg/m2), height (m), smoking status (never, former light smoker [< 20 pack-years], former heavy smoker [≥20 pack-years], current light smoker [< 20 pack-years], current heavy smoker [≥20 pack-years]) and alcohol intake (never, former, current [<once/week], current [≥once/week])
  3. aAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include use of sun/UV protection (Never/rarely/sometimes; most of the time/always; do not go out in sunshine)
  4. bAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include HRT use (ever used/never used), oral contraceptive use (ever used/never used), number of live births (0, 1, 2, 3+ live births), age at menarche (early menarche [< 12 years], menarche at 12–14 years, late menarche [≥15 years]), age at menopause (< 40 years, 40–44 years, 45–49 years, 50–54 years, 55–59 years, 60–64 years, ≥65 years, not had menopause/unsure), hysterectomy status (had hysterectomy, not had hysterectomy/unsure)
  5. cAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include HRT use (ever used/never used), oral contraceptive use (ever used/never used), number of live births (0, 1, 2, 3+ live births), age at menarche (early menarche [< 12 years], menarche at 12–14 years, late menarche [≥15 years]), age at menopause (< 40 years, 40–44 years, 45–49 years, 50–54 years, 55–59 years, 60–64 years, ≥65 years, not had menopause/unsure), hysterectomy status (had hysterectomy, not had hysterectomy/unsure)
  6. dAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include diabetes at baseline (yes/no)
  7. eAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include diabetes at baseline (yes/no), aspirin use (regular use/non-regular use or no use), HRT use (ever used/never used; females only), red meat intake (portion/week), processed meat intake (portion/week)
  8. fFinal model also adjusted for waist-hip ratio (> 94 cm in men, > 80 cm in women)
  9. f(males)For cancer sites which were adjusted for different sets of covariates for males and females (colorectal, colon, rectum), this indicates that the final model for male participants was also adjusted for waist-hip ratio (> 94 cm in men)
  10. gResults for males and females combined using meta-analysis as covariates are different
  11. hFinal model also adjusted for family history of cancer (mother/father/sibling had cancer, no family history)
  12. **Schoenfeld test indicated potential violation of the proportional hazards assumption (p < 0.05)