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Table 3 Results of Cox proportional hazards analyses investigating the association between self-report daily TV viewing time and cancer incidence (excluding cancers diagnosed within the first 2 years following baseline)

From: The association between recreational screen time and cancer risk: findings from the UK Biobank, a large prospective cohort study

   1 h increase in TV viewing time p-value ≤1 h 1- ≤ 3 h (reference) 3- ≤ 5 h > 5 h
Skin, melanoma Cases 1192   222 613 299 58
  HR (95% CI)a 1.02(0.98,1.06) 0.39** 0.93(0.80,1.09) 1.00 1.04(0.90,1.20) 1.004(0.76,1.33)
Oropharyngeal Cases 410   69 197 105 39
  HR (95% CI) 1.04(0.99,1.10) 0.12 0.90(0.68,1.19) 1.00 1.02(0.80,1.30) 1.27(0.89,1.84)
Lung Cases 1461   165 638 467 191
  HR (95% CI)h 1.02(0.99,1.05) 0.21** 0.87(0.73,1.03) 1.00 0.97(0.86,1.10) 1.10(0.93,1.30)
Breast (female only) Cases 3288   657 1724 756 151
  HR (95% CI)b, h 1.004(0.98,1.03) 0.76** 0.90(0.82,0.99) 1.00 0.96(0.87,1.04) 0.94(0.79,1.11)
Uterus Cases 567   102 270 165 30
  HR (95% CI)c 0.98(0.93,1.04) 0.56** 1.05(0.83,1.33) 1.00 1.06(0.87,1.29) 0.75(0.50,1.10)
Ovary Cases 404   69 204 109 22
  HR (95% CI) 1.02(0.95,1.09) 0.60 0.88(0.67,1.16) 1.00 1.01(0.80,1.29) 0.93(0.59,1.46)
Prostate Cases 4235   804 2127 1069 235
  HR (95% CI)h 0.99(0.97,1.01) 0.34** 1.02(0.94,1.10) 1.00 0.98(0.91,1.06) 0.94(0.82,1.08)
Oesophagus Cases 392   46 182 125 39
  HR (95% CI)f 1.04(0.98,1.10) 0.20** 0.79(0.57,1.10) 1.00 1.08(0.86,1.37) 1.11(0.77,1.60)
Stomach Cases 250   24 125 78 23
  HR (95% CI) 1.06(0.99,1.14) 0.09 0.57(0.37,0.89) 1.00 0.996(0.74,1.33) 0.96(0.60,1.53)
Oesophagus and stomach Cases 638   70 303 203 62
  HR (95% CI) 1.05(1.011.10) 0.03** 0.71(0.54,0.92) 1.00 1.07(0.89,1.28) 1.07(0.80,1.42)
Hepatobiliary tract Cases 348   51 156 100 41
  HR (95% CI) 1.03(0.97,1.10) 0.29 0.9999(0.72,1.38) 1.00 1.001(0.77,1.29) 1.36(0.94,1.95)
Pancreatic Cases 463   75 215 140 33
  HR (95% CI)d 1.01(0.95,1.06) 0.85 1.02(0.78,1.33) 1.00 1.09(0.88,1.36) 0.91(0.62,1.34)
Kidney Cases 583   90 280 161 52
  HR (95% CI) 0.99(0.94,1.04) 0.75 1.02(0.80,1.30) 1.00 0.95(0.77,1.15) 1.11(0.81,1.51)
Bladder Cases 461   57 208 155 41
  HR (95% CI) 1.03(0.98,1.09) 0.25** 0.88(0.65,1.19) 1.00 1.19(0.96,1.47) 1.10(0.77,1.55)
Colorectal Cases 2281   383 1118 621 159
  HR (95% CI)e, g, f (males) 1.03(0.998,1.05) 0.07** 0.95(0.85,1.07) 1.00 1.03(0.93,1.14) 1.10(0.93,1.31)
Colon Cases 1478   246 712 407 113
  HR (95% CI)e, g, f (males) 1.04(1.01,1.07) 0.02** 0.97(0.84,1.13) 1.00 1.05(0.92,1.19) 1.22(0.99,1.50)
Rectum Cases 754   134 373 201 46
  HR (95% CI)e, g 1.000(0.96,1.05) 0.995 0.98(0.80,1.20) 1.00 1.03(0.87,1.23) 0.99(0.72,1.36)
Brain tumours Cases 333   58 178 80 17
  HR (95% CI) 1.03(0.96,1.11) 0.38 0.85(0.62,1.15) 1.00 0.89(0.68,1.17) 0.81(0.48,1.35)
Thyroid Cases 161   32 85 35 9
  HR (95% CI) 0.99(0.89,1.09) 0.78 0.91(0.60,1.38) 1.00 0.88(0.59,1.32) 0.998(0.49,2.03)
Haematological malignancies Cases 1786   315 888 470 113
  HR (95% CI) 1.003(0.97,1.03) 0.86** 0.96(0.84,1.10) 1.00 0.98(0.87,1.10) 0.95(0.78,1.17)
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Cases 886   138 431 254 43
  HR (95% CI) 1.02(0.98,1.07) 0.26 0.84(0.69,1.02) 1.00 1.12(0.95,1.31) 0.78(0.57,1.08)
  1. aAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include use of sun/UV protection (Never/rarely/sometimes; most of the time/always; do not go out in sunshine)
  2. bAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include HRT use (ever used/never used), oral contraceptive use (ever used/never used), number of live births (0, 1, 2, 3+ live births), age at menarche (early menarche [< 12 years], menarche at 12–14 years, late menarche [≥15 years]), age at menopause (< 40 years, 40–44 years, 45–49 years, 50–54 years, 55–59 years, 60–64 years, ≥65 years, not had menopause/unsure), hysterectomy status (had hysterectomy, not had hysterectomy/unsure)
  3. cAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include HRT use (ever used/never used), oral contraceptive use (ever used/never used), number of live births (0, 1, 2, 3+ live births), age at menarche (early menarche [< 12 years], menarche at 12–14 years, late menarche [≥15 years]), age at menopause (< 40 years, 40–44 years, 45–49 years, 50–54 years, 55–59 years, 60–64 years, ≥65 years, not had menopause/unsure), hysterectomy status (had hysterectomy, not had hysterectomy/unsure)
  4. dAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include diabetes at baseline (yes/no)
  5. eAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include diabetes at baseline (yes/no), aspirin use (regular use/non-regular use or no use), HRT use (ever used/never used; females only), red meat intake (portion/week), processed meat intake (portion/week)
  6. fFinal model also adjusted for waist-hip ratio (> 94 cm in men, > 80 cm in women)
  7. f(males)For cancer sites which were adjusted for different sets of covariates for males and females (colorectal, colon, rectum), this indicates that the final model for male participants was also adjusted for waist-hip ratio (> 94 cm in men)
  8. gResults for males and females combined using meta-analysis as covariates are different
  9. hFinal model also adjusted for family history of cancer (mother/father/sibling had cancer, no family history)
  10. **Schoenfeld test indicated potential violation of the proportional hazards assumption (p < 0.05)