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Table 4 Results of isotemporal substitution models showing the impact on cancer incidence of replacing a 1-h of total daily TV viewing time with the same amount of daily moderate activity, daily vigorous activity or daily walking time, holding the other activities constant

From: The association between recreational screen time and cancer risk: findings from the UK Biobank, a large prospective cohort study

  1-h increase in daily moderate activity 1-h increase in daily vigorous activity 1-h increase in daily walking time
HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Skin melanoma
[cases = 1256]a
0.98 (0.89, 1.09) 0.97 (0.81, 1.17) 1.03 (0.94, 1.12)
Oropharyngeal
[cases = 411]
0.91 (0.77, 1.08) 0.86 (0.63, 1.18) 0.79 (0.67, 0.92)
Lung
[cases = 1355]h
1.0003 (0.92, 1.09) 0.84 (0.71, 1.004) 0.89 (0.82, 0.97)
Breast (female only)
[cases = 3454]b, h
0.90 (0.85, 0.96) 1.02 (0.89, 1.16) 0.99 (0.94, 1.05)
Uterus
[cases = 570]c
1.001 (0.86, 1.17) 1.05 (0.76, 1.46) 0.99 (0.86, 1.13)
Ovary
[cases = 405]
1.09 (0.93, 1.28) 1.12 (0.81, 1.55) 0.97 (0.83, 1.13)
Prostate
[cases = 4629]h
1.01 (0.96, 1.06) 1.05 (0.97, 1.15) 0.9997 (0.95, 1.05)
Oesophagus
[cases = 386]f
1.09 (0.93, 1.28) 1.06 (0.80, 1.42) 0.91 (0.77, 1.06)
Stomach
[cases = 264]
1.06 (0.87, 1.29) 0.77 (0.52, 1.15) 0.91 (0.76, 1.10)
Oesophagus and stomach
[cases = 644]
1.08 (0.95, 1.22) 0.94 (0.74, 1.18) 0.90 (0.80, 1.02)
Hepatobiliary tract
[cases = 331]
0.84 (0.69, 1.02) 1.01 (0.71, 1.43) 1.03 (0.87, 1.21)
Pancreatic
[cases = 467]d
1.07 (0.92, 1.24) 0.92 (0.69, 1.23) 0.95 (0.82, 1.09)
Kidney
[cases = 559]
1.01 (0.88, 1.17) 1.12 (0.87, 1.44) 0.95 (0.83, 1.09)
Bladder
[cases = 502]
0.98 (0.85, 1.13) 0.83 (0.62, 1.09) 1.03 (0.90, 1.17)
Colorectal
[cases = 2405]e, g, f (males)
0.92 (0.86, 0.99) 0.997 (0.87, 1.14) 1.01 (0.95, 1.08)
Colon
[cases = 1530]e, g, f (males)
0.87 (0.79, 0.95) 0.96 (0.81, 1.14) 1.001 (0.92, 1.09)
Rectum
[cases = 821]e, g
0.99 (0.88, 1.12) 1.06 (0.86, 1.30) 1.01 (0.90, 1.12)
Brain tumours
[cases = 345]
0.85 (0.70, 1.03) 0.85 (0.59, 1.23) 1.04 (0.88, 1.23)
Thyroid
[cases = 181]
0.94 (0.72, 1.23) 0.80 (0.46, 1.40) 1.07 (0.85, 1.35)
Haematological malignancies
[cases = 1794]
0.98 (0.90, 1.06) 1.07 (0.93, 1.24) 0.99 (0.92, 1.07)
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
[cases = 864]
0.99 (0.88, 1.11) 1.07 (0.87, 1.32) 0.95 (0.85, 1.06)
  1. All models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity (white/other), deprivation index (quintiles), education (University degree, A-levels/HNC/HND/NVQ, GCSE/O-level/CSE, OTHER, None), fruit and vegetable intake (< 5 portions/day, ≥5 portions/day), BMI (kg/m2), height (m), smoking status (never, former light smoker [< 20 pack-years], former heavy smoker [≥20 pack-years], current light smoker [< 20 pack-years], current heavy smoker [≥20 pack-years]) and alcohol intake (never, former, current [<once/week], current [≥once/week])
  2. aAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include use of sun/UV protection (Never/rarely/sometimes; most of the time/always; do not go out in sunshine)
  3. bAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include HRT use (ever used/never used), oral contraceptive use (ever used/never used), number of live births (0, 1, 2, 3+ live births), age at menarche (early menarche [< 12 years], menarche at 12–14 years, late menarche [≥15 years]), age at menopause (< 40 years, 40–44 years, 45–49 years, 50–54 years, 55–59 years, 60–64 years, ≥65 years, not had menopause/unsure), hysterectomy status (had hysterectomy, not had hysterectomy/unsure)
  4. cAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include HRT use (ever used/never used), oral contraceptive use (ever used/never used), number of live births (0, 1, 2, 3+ live births), age at menarche (early menarche [< 12 years], menarche at 12–14 years, late menarche [≥15 years]), age at menopause (< 40 years, 40–44 years, 45–49 years, 50–54 years, 55–59 years, 60–64 years, ≥65 years, not had menopause/unsure), hysterectomy status (had hysterectomy, not had hysterectomy/unsure)
  5. dAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include diabetes at baseline (yes/no)
  6. eAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include diabetes at baseline (yes/no), aspirin use (regular use/non-regular use or no use), HRT use (ever used/never used; females only), red meat intake (portion/week), processed meat intake (portion/week)
  7. fFinal model also adjusted for waist-hip ratio (> 94 cm in men, > 80 cm in women)
  8. f(males)For cancer sites which were adjusted for different sets of covariates for males and females (colorectal, colon, rectum), this indicates that the final model for male participants was also adjusted for waist-hip ratio (> 94 cm in men)
  9. gResults for males and females combined using meta-analysis as covariates are different
  10. hFinal model also adjusted for family history of cancer (mother/father/sibling had cancer, no family history)