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Table 5 Results of Cox proportional hazards analyses investigating the association between self-report daily computer use time and cancer incidence

From: The association between recreational screen time and cancer risk: findings from the UK Biobank, a large prospective cohort study

   1 h increase in computer use time p-value None ≤1 h (reference) 1- ≤ 3 h > 3 h
Person-years   3,498,487   969,721 1,744,785 582,168 201,813
Skin, melanoma Cases 1621   404 852 276 89
HR (95% CI)* 1.01 (0.98 1.05) 0.43** 0.77 (0.68 0.86) 1.00 0.90 (0.79 1.04) 0.92 (0.74 1.14)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.97 1.05) 0.72 0.90 (0.79 1.02) 1.00 0.97 (0.85 1.12) 0.99 (0.79 1.24)
  HR (95% CI)a 1.01 (0.97 1.05) 0.73 0.91 (0.80 1.03) 1.00 0.98 (0.85 1.12) 0.996 (0.79 1.25)
Oropharyngeal Cases 561   209 239 88 25
  HR (95% CI)* 0.90 (0.84 0.97) 0.004 1.56 (1.29 1.88) 1.00 0.97 (0.76 1.23) 0.81 (0.54 1.23)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.93 (0.87 0.998) 0.04 1.27 (1.03 1.56) 1.00 0.91 (0.71 1.17) 0.77 (0.51 1.17)
  HR (95% CI) 0.93 (0.87 0.998) 0.04 1.27 (1.03 1.56) 1.00 0.91 (0.71 1.17) 0.77 (0.51 1.17)
Lung Cases 2040   894 700 316 130
HR (95% CI)* 0.97 (0.93 1.003) 0.08** 1.84 (1.66 2.03) 1.00 1.17 (1.03 1.34) 1.68 (1.39 2.03)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.02 (0.99 1.06) 0.16** 1.10 (0.99 1.23) 1.00 1.01 (0.88 1.16) 1.33 (1.10 1.62)
  HR (95% CI)h 1.02 (0.99 1.06) 0.16** 1.11 (0.99 1.24) 1.00 0.996 (0.87 1.15) 1.36 (1.12 1.65)
Breast (female only) Cases 5650   1728 2931 762 229
HR (95% CI)* 1.01 (0.99 1.03) 0.27** 0.93 (0.88 0.99) 1.00 1.02 (0.94 1.10) 0.997 (0.87 1.14)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.003 (0.98 1.03) 0.83** 0.97 (0.91 1.04) 1.00 0.999 (0.92 1.08) 1.001 (0.87 1.15)
  HR (95% CI)b, f, h 1.01 (0.98 1.03) 0.57** 0.96 (0.90 1.04) 1.00 0.998 (0.91 1.09) 1.03 (0.89 1.20)
Uterus Cases 863   315 389 127 32
  HR (95% CI)* 1.01 (0.95 1.07) 0.74 1.18 (1.02 1.38) 1.00 1.25 (1.03 1.53) 1.12 (0.78 1.60)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.96 (0.90 1.02) 0.20 1.18 (0.999 1.39) 1.00 1.04 (0.84 1.28) 0.91 (0.63 1.33)
  HR (95% CI)c 0.98 (0.92 1.04) 0.47 1.16 (0.98 1.37) 1.00 1.08 (0.87 1.35) 0.95 (0.64 1.40)
Ovary Cases 567   211 266 63 27
  HR (95% CI)* 0.98 (0.91 1.05) 0.51 1.16 (0.96 1.39) 1.00 0.91 (0.69 1.19) 1.36 (0.91 2.02)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.96 (0.89 1.04) 0.36 1.23 (1.01 1.50) 1.00 0.91 (0.69 1.21) 1.36 (0.91 2.04)
  HR (95% CI) 0.96 (0.89 1.04) 0.36 1.23 (1.01 1.50) 1.00 0.91 (0.69 1.21) 1.36 (0.91 2.04)
Prostate Cases 5933   1543 2699 1298 393
  HR (95% CI)* 1.005 (0.99 1.02) 0.61** 0.91 (0.85 0.97) 1.00 0.97 (0.91 1.03) 0.97 (0.87 1.07)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.998 (0.98 1.02) 0.85** 0.98 (0.92 1.06) 1.00 0.99 (0.93 1.06) 0.9998 (0.90 1.12)
  HR (95% CI)h 0.997 (0.98 1.02) 0.73** 0.99 (0.92 1.06) 1.00 0.99 (0.93 1.06) 0.99 (0.89 1.11)
Oesophagus Cases 530   174 221 108 27
  HR (95% CI)* 0.97 (0.90 1.03) 0.32 1.20 (0.98 1.47) 1.00 1.13 (0.90 1.42) 0.94 (0.63 1.41)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.97 (0.90 1.04) 0.37 0.99 (0.79 1.23) 1.00 1.02 (0.81 1.30) 0.78 (0.51 1.19)
  HR (95% CI)f 0.97 (0.90 1.04) 0.35 0.99 (0.79 1.23) 1.00 1.02 (0.80 1.30) 0.77 (0.51 1.18)
Stomach Cases 349   133 133 61 22
  HR (95% CI)* 0.98 (0.90 1.06) 0.60 1.50 (1.18 1.92) 1.00 1.09 (0.80 1.47) 1.30 (0.83 2.05)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.98 (0.91 1.07) 0.71 1.16 (0.88 1.51) 1.00 0.98 (0.72 1.35) 1.04 (0.64 1.69)
  HR (95% CI) 0.98 (0.91 1.07) 0.71 1.16 (0.88 1.51) 1.00 0.98 (0.72 1.35) 1.04 (0.64 1.69)
Oesophagus and stomach Cases 873   305 352 168 48
  HR (95% CI)* 0.97 (0.92 1.02) 0.25 1.31 (1.12 1.53) 1.00 1.11 (0.93 1.34) 1.06 (0.79 1.44)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.97 (0.92 1.03) 0.33 1.05 (0.89 1.25) 1.00 1.01 (0.83 1.22) 0.86 (0.62 1.19)
  HR (95% CI)f 0.97 (0.92 1.03) 0.32 1.05 (0.89 1.25) 1.00 1.01 (0.83 1.22) 0.86 (0.62 1.19)
Hepatobiliary tract Cases 451   170 168 91 22
  HR (95% CI)* 0.97 (0.90 1.04) 0.42 1.49 (1.20 1.85) 1.00 1.38 (1.07 1.79) 1.14 (0.73 1.77)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.99 (0.92 1.06) 0.74 1.21 (0.95 1.53) 1.00 1.30 (0.997 1.69) 1.02 (0.65 1.61)
  HR (95% CI) 0.99 (0.92 1.06) 0.74 1.21 (0.95 1.53) 1.00 1.30 (0.997 1.69) 1.02 (0.65 1.61)
Pancreatic Cases 606   189 276 114 27
  HR (95% CI)* 0.98 (0.92 1.05) 0.62 1.01 (0.83 1.21) 1.00 1.07 (0.86 1.34) 0.87 (0.59 1.29)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.98 (0.92 1.05) 0.62 0.90 (0.73 1.11) 1.00 1.05 (0.84 1.31) 0.76 (0.50 1.15)
  HR (95% CI)d 0.98 (0.92 1.05) 0.61 0.90 (0.73 1.10) 1.00 1.05 (0.84 1.31) 0.76 (0.50 1.14)
Kidney Cases 783   251 333 149 50
  HR (95% CI)* 1.01 (0.96 1.07) 0.60 1.17 (0.995 1.39) 1.00 1.12 (0.92 1.36) 1.23 (0.91 1.66)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.02 (0.97 1.08) 0.39** 1.04 (0.87 1.25) 1.00 1.05 (0.86 1.29) 1.19 (0.88 1.61)
  HR (95% CI) 1.02 (0.97 1.08) 0.39** 1.04 (0.87 1.25) 1.00 1.05 (0.86 1.29) 1.19 (0.88 1.61)
Bladder Cases 670   227 271 142 30
  HR (95% CI)* 0.98 (0.93 1.04) 0.54 1.22 (1.02 1.46) 1.00 1.18 (0.96 1.44) 0.85 (0.59 1.25)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.97 (0.92 1.04) 0.41** 1.09 (0.89 1.32) 1.00 1.08 (0.87 1.33) 0.76 (0.51 1.13)
  HR (95% CI) 0.97 (0.92 1.04) 0.41** 1.09 (0.89 1.32) 1.00 1.08 (0.87 1.33) 0.76 (0.51 1.13)
Colorectal Cases 3312   1059 1512 556 185
  HR (95% CI)* 0.99 (0.96 1.02) 0.45** 1.07 (0.99 1.16) 1.00 0.95 (0.87 1.05) 1.05 (0.90 1.23)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.99 (0.96 1.01) 0.31** 1.08 (0.99 1.18) 1.00 0.95 (0.86 1.05) 1.03 (0.88 1.21)
  HR (95% CI)e, g, f (males) 0.98 (0.96 1.01) 0.28** 1.06 (0.97 1.16) 1.00 0.95 (0.86 1.05) 1.02 (0.87 1.20)
Colon Cases 2124   681 980 348 115
  HR (95% CI)* 0.99 (0.96 1.03) 0.63** 1.04 (0.94 1.15) 1.00 0.94 (0.83 1.06) 1.04 (0.86 1.26)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.99 (0.95 1.02) 0.50** 1.04 (0.93 1.15) 1.00 0.93 (0.82 1.06) 1.02 (0.83 1.24)
  HR (95% CI)e, g, f (males) 0.99 (0.95 1.02) 0.42** 1.03 (0.92 1.14) 1.00 0.93 (0.82 1.06) 1.02 (0.83 1.25)
Rectum Cases 1115   354 501 195 65
  HR (95% CI)* 0.98 (0.94 1.03) 0.42** 1.12 (0.98 1.29) 1.00 0.97 (0.82 1.14) 1.04 (0.80 1.35)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.97 (0.93 1.02) 0.28 1.20 (1.03 1.39) 1.00 0.97 (0.82 1.15) 1.03 (0.79 1.35)
  HR (95% CI)e, g 0.97 (0.93 1.02) 0.28 1.16 (0.999 1.36) 1.00 0.96 (0.81 1.15) 0.999 (0.76 1.32)
Thyroid Cases 237   82 106 35 14
  HR (95% CI)* 1.02 (0.92 1.12) 0.76 1.31 (0.98 1.76) 1.00 1.10 (0.75 1.61) 1.32 (0.76 2.31)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.91 1.11) 0.86 1.36 (0.99 1.87) 1.00 1.08 (0.73 1.59) 1.28 (0.73 2.25)
  HR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.91 1.11) 0.86 1.36 (0.99 1.87) 1.00 1.08 (0.73 1.59) 1.28 (0.73 2.25)
Brain tumours Cases 463   130 221 87 25
  HR (95% CI)* 1.02 (0.95 1.09) 0.62 0.95 (0.77 1.19) 1.00 1.02 (0.79 1.31) 0.93 (0.61 1.40)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.03 (0.96 1.10) 0.39 0.92 (0.72 1.17) 1.00 1.03 (0.80 1.34) 0.96 (0.63 1.47)
  HR (95% CI)f 1.03 (0.96 1.10) 0.38 0.92 (0.72 1.17) 1.00 1.04 (0.80 1.34) 0.97 (0.63 1.48)
Haematological malignancies Cases 2446   714 1137 445 150
  HR (95% CI)* 1.03 (0.998 1.06) 0.06 0.95 (0.87 1.05) 1.00 1.02 (0.92 1.14) 1.14 (0.96 1.36)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.02 (0.99 1.05) 0.24 0.95 (0.86 1.06) 1.00 0.997 (0.89 1.12) 1.11 (0.93 1.32)
  HR (95% CI) 1.02 (0.99 1.05) 0.24 0.95 (0.86 1.06) 1.00 0.997 (0.89 1.12) 1.11 (0.93 1.32)
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Cases 1182   349 545 225 63
  HR (95% CI)* 1.02 (0.98 1.06) 0.37 0.97 (0.85 1.11) 1.00 1.09 (0.94 1.28) 1.02 (0.78 1.32)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.97 1.06) 0.65 0.996 (0.86 1.15) 1.00 1.07 (0.91 1.26) 1.03 (0.79 1.34)
  HR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.97 1.06) 0.65 0.996 (0.86 1.15) 1.00 1.07 (0.91 1.26) 1.03 (0.79 1.34)
  1. *Models adjusted for age and sex (total observations = 467,656)
  2. †Models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity (white/other), deprivation index (quintiles), education (University degree, A-levels/HNC/HND/NVQ, GCSE/O-level/CSE, OTHER, None), fruit and vegetable intake (< 5 portions/day, ≥5 portions/day), BMI (kg/m2), height (m), smoking status (never, former light smoker [< 20 pack-years], former heavy smoker [≥20 pack-years], current light smoker [< 20 pack-years], current heavy smoker [≥20 pack-years]) and alcohol intake (never, former, current [<once/week], current [≥once/week])
  3. aAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include use of sun/UV protection (Never/rarely/sometimes; most of the time/always; do not go out in sunshine)
  4. bAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include HRT use (ever used/never used), oral contraceptive use (ever used/never used), number of live births (0, 1, 2, 3+ live births), age at menarche (early menarche [< 12 years], menarche at 12–14 years, late menarche [≥15 years]), age at menopause (< 40 years, 40–44 years, 45–49 years, 50–54 years, 55–59 years, 60–64 years, ≥65 years, not had menopause/unsure), hysterectomy status (had hysterectomy, not had hysterectomy/unsure)
  5. cAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include HRT use (ever used/never used), oral contraceptive use (ever used/never used), number of live births (0, 1, 2, 3+ live births), age at menarche (early menarche [< 12 years], menarche at 12–14 years, late menarche [≥15 years]), age at menopause (< 40 years, 40–44 years, 45–49 years, 50–54 years, 55–59 years, 60–64 years, ≥65 years, not had menopause/unsure), hysterectomy status (had hysterectomy, not had hysterectomy/unsure)
  6. dAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include diabetes at baseline (yes/no)
  7. eAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include diabetes at baseline (yes/no), aspirin use (regular use/non-regular use or no use), HRT use (ever used/never used; females only), red meat intake (portion/week), processed meat intake (portion/week)
  8. fFinal model also adjusted for waist-hip ratio (> 94 cm in men, > 80 cm in women)
  9. f(males)For cancer sites which were adjusted for different sets of covariates for males and females (colorectal, colon, rectum), this indicates that the final model for male participants was also adjusted for waist-hip ratio (> 94 cm in men)
  10. gResults for males and females combined using meta-analysis as covariates are different
  11. hFinal model also adjusted for family history of cancer (mother/father/sibling had cancer, no family history)
  12. **Schoenfeld test indicated potential violation of the proportional hazards assumption (p < 0.05)