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Table 6 Results of Cox proportional hazards analyses investigating the association between self-report daily total screen time and cancer incidence

From: The association between recreational screen time and cancer risk: findings from the UK Biobank, a large prospective cohort study

   1 h increase in total screen time p-value ≤1 h 1- ≤ 4 h (reference) 4- ≤ 8 h > 8 h
Person-years   3,474,425   254,147 2,111,765 997,699 110,815
Skin, melanoma Cases 1614   101 960 504 49
HR (95% CI)* 0.99 (0.97 1.02) 0.64** 0.93 (0.76 1.14) 1.00 1.02 (0.91 1.13) 0.98 (0.73 1.30)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.98 1.03) 0.62 0.97 (0.78 1.19) 1.00 1.07 (0.96 1.20) 1.06 (0.78 1.44)
  HR (95% CI)a 1.01 (0.98 1.03) 0.70 0.99 (0.80 1.22) 1.00 1.07 (0.95 1.19) 1.07 (0.79 1.45)
Oropharyngeal Cases 552   24 312 191 25
  HR (95% CI)* 1.05 (1.01 1.09) 0.009 0.69 (0.46 1.05) 1.00 1.18 (0.99 1.42) 1.39 (0.92 2.09)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.02 (0.98 1.06) 0.41 0.69 (0.45 1.04) 1.00 1.10 (0.91 1.32) 1.09 (0.71 1.67)
  HR (95% CI) 1.02 (0.98 1.06) 0.41 0.69 (0.45 1.04) 1.00 1.10 (0.91 1.32) 1.09 (0.71 1.67)
Lung Cases 2014   119 995 774 126
HR (95% CI)* 1.11 (1.09 1.13) < 0.001** 1.13 (0.93 1.37) 1.00 1.37 (1.25 1.50) 2.49 (2.07 3.00)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.02 (1.003 1.04) 0.03** 1.13 (0.92 1.38) 1.00 1.05 (0.95 1.16) 1.42 (1.16 1.72)
  HR (95% CI)h 1.03 (1.004 1.05) 0.02** 1.12 (0.91 1.37) 1.00 1.05 (0.95 1.16) 1.45 (1.19 1.77)
Breast (female only) Cases 5609   418 3526 1522 143
HR (95% CI)* 1.01 (0.996 1.02) 0.16** 0.91 (0.82 1.004) 1.00 0.97 (0.92 1.04) 1.08 (0.91 1.27)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.003 (0.99 1.02) 0.64** 0.94 (0.85 1.04) 1.00 0.95 (0.90 1.02) 1.08 (0.91 1.29)
  HR (95% CI)b, h 1.01 (0.99 1.02) 0.37** 0.93 (0.83 1.04) 1.00 0.97 (0.90 1.04) 1.11 (0.92 1.34)
Uterus Cases 856   70 504 264 18
  HR (95% CI)* 1.03 (0.99 1.06) 0.14 1.11 (0.87 1.43) 1.00 1.12 (0.96 1.30) 0.99 (0.62 1.58)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.97 (0.93 1.004) 0.08 1.15 (0.88 1.50) 1.00 0.93 (0.80 1.09) 0.57 (0.33 0.97)
  HR (95% CI)c 0.97 (0.94 1.01) 0.17 1.16 (0.89 1.53) 1.00 0.93 (0.79 1.09) 0.66 (0.38 1.12)
Ovary Cases 561   44 354 149 14
  HR (95% CI)* 0.99 (0.95 1.04) 0.75 0.99 (0.72 1.35) 1.00 0.90 (0.74 1.09) 1.08 (0.63 1.85)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.997 (0.95 1.04) 0.91 0.98 (0.71 1.35) 1.00 0.90 (0.74 1.11) 1.14 (0.66 1.95)
  HR (95% CI) 0.997 (0.95 1.04) 0.91 0.98 (0.71 1.35) 1.00 0.90 (0.74 1.11) 1.14 (0.66 1.95)
Prostate Cases 5898   335 3340 2032 191
  HR (95% CI)* 0.98 (0.97 0.99) < 0.001** 1.07 (0.95 1.19) 1.00 0.96 (0.91 1.01) 0.86 (0.74 0.99)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.99 (0.98 1.004) 0.16** 1.06 (0.94 1.19) 1.00 1.01 (0.95 1.07) 0.94 (0.81 1.10)
  HR (95% CI)h 0.99 (0.98 1.005) 0.21** 1.05 (0.93 1.18) 1.00 1.01 (0.95 1.07) 0.94 (0.81 1.10)
Oesophagus Cases 528   28 272 216 12
  HR (95% CI)* 1.05 (1.02 1.10) 0.006 1.02 (0.69 1.50) 1.00 1.34 (1.12 1.60) 0.75 (0.42 1.34)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.003 (0.96 1.05) 0.89 1.13 (0.77 1.68) 1.00 1.13 (0.94 1.36) 0.54 (0.29 0.99)
  HR (95% CI)f 1.001 (0.96 1.04) 0.95 1.15 (0.77 1.69) 1.00 1.12 (0.93 1.36) 0.54 (0.29 0.99)
Stomach Cases 348   14 177 141 16
  HR (95% CI)* 1.08 (1.04 1.13) < 0.001 0.77 (0.45 1.33) 1.00 1.37 (1.09 1.71) 1.58 (0.95 2.63)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.03 (0.98 1.08) 0.19 0.75 (0.43 1.32) 1.00 1.12 (0.89 1.42) 1.07 (0.61 1.85)
  HR (95% CI) 1.03 (0.98 1.08) 0.19 0.75 (0.43 1.32) 1.00 1.12 (0.89 1.42) 1.07 (0.61 1.85)
Oesophagus and stomach Cases 870   42 444 356 28
  HR (95% CI)* 1.07 (1.04 1.10) < 0.001 0.93 (0.68 1.28) 1.00 1.36 (1.18 1.57) 1.09 (0.74 1.59)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.02 (0.98 1.05) 0.31 0.99 (0.72 1.36) 1.00 1.14 (0.98 1.32) 0.76 (0.50 1.14)
  HR (95% CI)f 1.02 (0.98 1.05) 0.34 0.99 (0.72 1.37) 1.00 1.13 (0.98 1.31) 0.76 (0.50 1.14)
Hepatobiliary tract Cases 446   22 249 156 19
  HR (95% CI)* 1.05 (1.01 1.10) 0.02 0.84 (0.54 1.29) 1.00 1.11 (0.90 1.35) 1.45 (0.91 2.31)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.96 1.05) 0.73 0.82 (0.52 1.30) 1.00 0.95 (0.77 1.18) 1.05 (0.65 1.72)
  HR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.96 1.05) 0.73 0.82 (0.52 1.30) 1.00 0.95 (0.77 1.18) 1.05 (0.65 1.72)
Pancreatic Cases 604   30 333 220 21
  HR (95% CI)* 1.04 (1.004 1.08) 0.03 0.85 (0.58 1.23) 1.00 1.17 (0.99 1.39) 1.22 (0.78 1.89)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.02 (0.98 1.06) 0.37 0.86 (0.58 1.26) 1.00 1.10 (0.92 1.31) 1.01 (0.64 1.60)
  HR (95% CI)d 1.02 (0.98 1.06) 0.45 0.86 (0.58 1.26) 1.00 1.08 (0.91 1.30) 0.99 (0.63 1.57)
Kidney Cases 771   43 417 279 32
  HR (95% CI)* 1.04 (1.01. 1.08) 0.01 0.98 (0.71 1.34) 1.00 1.19 (1.02 1.38) 1.38 (0.96 1.98)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.97 1.04) 0.67** 1.03 (0.74 1.44) 1.00 1.07 (0.91 1.25) 1.14 (0.79 1.66)
  HR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.97 1.04) 0.67** 1.03 (0.74 1.44) 1.00 1.07 (0.91 1.25) 1.14 (0.79 1.66)
Bladder Cases 662   24 351 259 28
  HR (95% CI)* 1.06 (1.02 1.09) 0.001 0.69 (0.46 1.04) 1.00 1.21 (1.03 1.42) 1.36 (0.93 2.00)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.98 1.05) 0.50** 0.76 (0.50 1.16) 1.00 1.10 (0.93 1.30) 0.99 (0.65 1.53)
  HR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.98 1.05) 0.50** 0.76 (0.50 1.16) 1.00 1.10 (0.93 1.30) 0.99 (0.65 1.53)
Colorectal Cases 3290   180 1896 1096 118
  HR (95% CI)* 1.02 (1.002 1.04) 0.03** 0.88 (0.76 1.03) 1.00 1.04 (0.97 1.12) 1.16 (0.97 1.40)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.99 1.03) 0.41** 0.92 (0.79 1.08) 1.00 1.003 (0.93 1.08) 1.11 (0.91 1.35)
  HR (95% CI)e, g, f (males) 1.01 (0.99 1.02) 0.58** 0.89 (0.76 1.04) 1.00 0.99 (0.91 1.07) 1.08 (0.88 1.32)
Colon Cases 2110   111 1202 721 76
  HR (95% CI)* 1.03 (1.01 1.05) 0.003** 0.86 (0.70 1.04) 1.00 1.08 (0.99 1.19) 1.21 (0.96 1.53)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.02 (0.998 1.04) 0.08** 0.91 (0.75 1.11) 1.00 1.04 (0.95 1.15) 1.16 (0.91 1.48)
  HR (95% CI)e, g, f (males) 1.02 (0.99 1.04) 0.15** 0.90 (0.73 1.10) 1.00 1.04 (0.94 1.15) 1.12 (0.88 1.44)
Rectum Cases 1107   64 645 358 40
  HR (95% CI)* 0.998 (0.97 1.03) 0.89** 0.94 (0.73 1.21) 1.00 0.99 (0.87 1.13) 1.10 (0.80 1.51)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.99 (0.96 1.02) 0.38 0.95 (0.73 1.25) 1.00 0.95 (0.83 1.09) 1.04 (0.74 1.46)
  HR (95% CI)e, g 0.98 (0.95 1.02) 0.31 0.91 (0.69 1.20) 1.00 0.92 (0.80 1.06) 1.01 (0.72 1.43)
Brain tumours Cases 458   28 269 145 16
  HR (95% CI)* 1.01 (0.97 1.06) 0.50 0.96 (0.65 1.42) 1.00 0.99 (0.81 1.22) 1.07 (0.65 1.77)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.02 (0.98 1.07) 0.31 0.98 (0.66 1.46) 1.00 1.001 (0.81 1.24) 1.13 (0.67 1.91)
  HR (95% CI)f 1.03 (0.98 1.07) 0.28 0.97 (0.65 1.45) 1.00 1.01 (0.81 1.25) 1.13 (0.67 1.92)
Thyroid Cases 236   15 154 62 5
  HR (95% CI)* 0.99 (0.93 1.06) 0.86 0.78 (0.46 1.32) 1.00 0.87 (0.65 1.18) 0.71 (0.29 1.72)
  HR (95% CI)† 0.999 (0.93 1.07) 0.97 0.76 (0.44 1.32) 1.00 0.88 (0.64 1.20) 0.70 (0.28 1.72)
  HR (95% CI) 0.999 (0.93 1.07) 0.97 0.76 (0.44 1.32) 1.00 0.88 (0.64 1.20) 0.70 (0.28 1.72)
Haematological malignancies Cases 2427   142 1396 806 83
  HR (95% CI)* 1.02 (0.998 1.04) 0.09 0.95 (0.80 1.12) 1.00 1.04 (0.96 1.14) 1.12 (0.90 1.40)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.99 1.03) 0.43 0.96 (0.80 1.15) 1.00 1.02 (0.93 1.12) 1.07 (0.85 1.34)
  HR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.99 1.03) 0.43 0.96 (0.80 1.15) 1.00 1.02 (0.93 1.12) 1.07 (0.85 1.34)
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Cases 1174   68 675 392 39
  HR (95% CI)* 1.02 (0.99 1.04) 0.28 0.93 (0.72 1.19) 1.00 1.06 (0.93 1.20) 1.10 (0.80 1.52)
  HR (95% CI)† 1.01 (0.98 1.04) 0.43 0.93 (0.72 1.20) 1.00 1.08 (0.95 1.23) 1.06 (0.75 1.48)
  HR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.98 1.04) 0.43 0.93 (0.72 1.20) 1.00 1.08 (0.95 1.23) 1.06 (0.75 1.48)
  1. *Models adjusted for age and sex (total observations = 464,424)
  2. †Models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity (white/other), deprivation index (quintiles), education (University degree, A-levels/HNC/HND/NVQ, GCSE/O-level/CSE, OTHER, None), fruit and vegetable intake (< 5 portions/day, ≥5 portions/day), BMI (kg/m2), height (m), smoking status (never, former light smoker [< 20 pack-years], former heavy smoker [≥20 pack-years], current light smoker [< 20 pack-years], current heavy smoker [≥20 pack-years]) and alcohol intake (never, former, current [<once/week], current [≥once/week])
  3. aAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include use of sun/UV protection (Never/rarely/sometimes; most of the time/always; do not go out in sunshine)
  4. bAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include HRT use (ever used/never used), oral contraceptive use (ever used/never used), number of live births (0, 1, 2, 3+ live births), age at menarche (early menarche [< 12 years], menarche at 12–14 years, late menarche [≥15 years]), age at menopause (< 40 years, 40–44 years, 45–49 years, 50–54 years, 55–59 years, 60–64 years, ≥65 years, not had menopause/unsure), hysterectomy status (had hysterectomy, not had hysterectomy/unsure)
  5. cAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include HRT use (ever used/never used), oral contraceptive use (ever used/never used), number of live births (0, 1, 2, 3+ live births), age at menarche (early menarche [< 12 years], menarche at 12–14 years, late menarche [≥15 years]), age at menopause (< 40 years, 40–44 years, 45–49 years, 50–54 years, 55–59 years, 60–64 years, ≥65 years, not had menopause/unsure), hysterectomy status (had hysterectomy, not had hysterectomy/unsure)
  6. dAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include diabetes at baseline (yes/no)
  7. eAdditional site-specific covariates in the final model include diabetes at baseline (yes/no), aspirin use (regular use/non-regular use or no use), HRT use (ever used/never used; females only), red meat intake (portion/week), processed meat intake (portion/week)
  8. fFinal model also adjusted for waist-hip ratio (> 94 cm in men, > 80 cm in women)
  9. f(males)For cancer sites which were adjusted for different sets of covariates for males and females (colorectal, colon, rectum), this indicates that the final model for male participants was also adjusted for waist-hip ratio (> 94 cm in men)
  10. gResults for males and females combined using meta-analysis as covariates are different
  11. hFinal model also adjusted for family history of cancer (mother/father/sibling had cancer, no family history)
  12. **Schoenfeld test indicated potential violation of the proportional hazards assumption (p < 0.05)