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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample

From: How do short sleepers use extra waking hours? A compositional analysis of 24-h time-use patterns among children and adolescents

  Total
n = 659
Children
n = 343
Adolescents
n = 316
p-valuec
  Meana varb Meana varb Meana varb
Age (years) 13.9 2.8 11.7 1.6 16.3 1.3 < 0.001
Height (cm) 160.5 14.1 151.6 12.0 170.2 8.7 < 0.001
Weight (kg) 52.9 15.0 43.7 11.4 63.0 11.6 < 0.001
BMId z-score 0.2 1.1 0.2 1.1 0.2 1.0 0.559
Weight status (% of n)e
 Underweight 1.4   2.0   0.6   
 ‘Normal’ weight 76.1   73.2   79.4   
 Overweight 17.0   17.2   16.8   
 Obese 5.5   7.6   3.2   
Sleep
 % of short sleepers (% of n) 73.3   71.4   75.3   
 Sleep duration (min/day)f 490.2 33.1 520.4 32.3 453.7 37.0 < 0.001
 Sleep efficiency (%)g 86.5 4.7 85.6 4.5 87.5 4.7 < 0.001
Waking behaviorsf
 SBh (min/day) 675.6 54.0 623.8 53.6 735.1 47.0 < 0.001
 LPAi (min/day) 229.0 33.8 241.2 36.2 215.4 34.9 0.001
 MVPAj (min/day) 45.2 79.0 54.7 77.9 35.6 81.1 0.021
  1. a Geometric mean for time-use components; arithmetic mean for non-compositional continuous variables; percentages for categorical variables
  2. b The part of total variance related to a given time-use component; standard deviation for other variables
  3. c p-value from the t-test for independent samples, where the first pivot coordinate was used to represent each time-use variable
  4. d Body mass index
  5. e Categories according to body mass index z-score
  6. f The respective time-use composition was adjusted to 24 h before the analysis
  7. g Calculated as the percentage of time spent in sustained inactivity periods divided by the sleep duration
  8. h Sedentary behavior
  9. i Light physical activity
  10. j Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity