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Table 2 Differences between short and ‘normal’ sleepers in sleep characteristics and waking behaviors

From: How do short sleepers use extra waking hours? A compositional analysis of 24-h time-use patterns among children and adolescents

  Children Adolescents
Short sleepers
n = 245
Normal sleepers
n = 98
p-valuec Short sleepers
n = 238
Normal sleepers
n = 78
p-valuec
Meana varb Meana varb Meana varb Meana varb
Sleep duration (min/day)d 502.6 32.0 568.1 29.9 < 0.001 438.0 36.8 501.8 35.0 < 0.001
Sleep efficacy (%)e 86.2 4.5 84.1 4.2 < 0.001 87.8 4.7 86.5 4.3 0.030
Sleep onset (hh:mm)f 22:16 39 21:33 38   23:29 50 22:35 39  
Wake-up time (hh:mm)f 06:40 31 07:01 35   6:52 39 07:06 34  
SBg (min/day)d 647.7 50.3 552.5 54.8 < 0.001 749.8 45.2 682.7 48.1 0.001
LPAh (min/day)d 236.9 37.1 250.3 42.7 0.167 216.7 35.7 218.7 34.0 0.035
MVPAi (min/day)d 52.8 80.6 69.1 72.7 0.002 35.5 82.4 36.7 83.0 0.972
Bouts of SBg (min/day)d
 sporadic 152.4 14.5 172.5 12.2 < 0.001 97.9 15.1 89.1 16.2 0.049
 1–9 min 123.4 12.3 121.8 12.3 0.381 107.1 12.1 100.1 12.5 0.005
 10–29 min 112.3 14.5 107.3 14.7 0.596 119.5 14.1 113.6 14.1 0.041
  ≥ 30 min 242.1 26.1 149.2 27.1 < 0.001 419.3 20.7 373.0 24.2 0.350
Bouts of LPAh (min/day)d
 sporadic 145.4 11.5 153.5 11.3 < 0.001 112.8 11.7 106.1 11.4 0.055
 1–9 min 81.1 12.8 79.8 13.7 0.419 80.4 11.9 82.8 11.7 0.821
  ≥ 10 min 16.8 43.1 13.2 54.5 0.042 22.0 43.4 25.3 34.9 0.185
Bouts of MVPAi (min/day)d
 sporadic 36.9 13.8 43.9 14.0 < 0.001 22.0 16.2 23.3 16.6 0.017
  ≥ 1 min 17.1 40.5 20.9 29.6 0.052 12.7 42.4 11.4 46.1 0.716
  1. a Geometric mean for time-use components; arithmetic mean for other variables
  2. b The part of total variance related to a given time-use component; standard deviation for other variables
  3. c p-value from the t-test for independent samples, where the first pivot coordinate was used to represent each time-use variable
  4. d The respective time-use composition was adjusted to 24 h before the analysis
  5. e Calculated as the percentage of time spent in sustained inactivity periods divided by the sleep duration
  6. f Time was detected by an algorithm guided by self-reported wake-up and sleep-onset time. Standard deviation is expressed in minutes
  7. g Sedentary behavior
  8. h Light physical activity
  9. i Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity