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Table 2 Change in sedentary and physical activity behavior during school days of intervention and control groups after one and 2 years (Model 1) and one- and two-year intervention effects (Model 2)

From: Effects of the KEIGAAF intervention on the BMI z-score and energy balance-related behaviors of primary school-aged children

  Model 1 Model 2
Intervention group (N = 419) Control group (N = 104) Intervention group vs. control group
N Mean (SD)a B (95% CI)b p N Mean (SD)a B (95% CI)b p B (95% CI)b p ES
%SB T0 379 61.34 (6.58)    84 60.03 (7.11)      
T1 326 64.46 (6.39) 2.23 (1.58; 2.89) 0.00 75 62.66 (6.95) 2.24 (0.49; 3.99) 0.01 −0.14 (−1.64; 1.36) 0.85 −0.01
T2 265 66.65 (6.40) 4.89 (4.16; 5.62) 0.00 67 66.39 (6.83) 4.45 (2.47; 6.43) 0.00 −0.41 (−2.15; 1.33) 0.64 −0.04
%LPA T0 379 30.88 (5.07)    84 31.34 (5.36)      
T1 326 28.40 (4.92) −1.82 (−2.34; −1.31) 0.00 75 29.11 (5.13) −2.09 (−3.46; −0.73) 0.00 0.18 (−1.00; 1.36) 0.76 0.02
T2 265 26.53 (4.77) −4.19 (−4.76; − 3.63) 0.00 67 27.01 (5.27) −2.72 (−4.19; −1.26) 0.00 −0.57 (−1.91; 0.77) 0.40 −0.07
%MVPA T0 379 7.78 (2.89)    84 8.63 (3.78)      
T1 326 7.14 (2.59) −0.36 (−0.67; −0.06) 0.02 75 8.23 (3.18) −0.01 (− 0.74; 0.73) 0.98 − 0.06 (− 0.76; 0.64) 0.86 −0.01
T2 265 6.82 (2.82) −0.69 (−1.02; − 0.36) 0.00 67 6.60 (2.34) −1.51 (−2.58; − 0.44) 0.01 0.95 (0.13; 1.76) 0.02 0.22
CPM T0 379 1153.89 (288.75)c    84 1270.87 (489.96)      
T1 326 1040.72 (259.40) −80.65 (− 109.43; −51.88) 0.00 75 1131.00 (323.44) −97.79 (− 207.32; 11.45) 0.08 35.87 (−40.17; 111.90) 0.35 0.07
T2 265 972.08 (283.38) − 161.14 (− 193.73; − 128.55) 0.00 67 926.21 (227.56) − 278.18 (− 410.66; − 145.69) 0.00 130.52 (43.21; 217.83) 0.00 0.26
  1. Note. Model 1: predictor variable is time / Model 2: predictor variable is time*condition (reference group = control group). Analyses were conducted using mixed model analysis with adjustment for clustering of data within persons and adjustment for clustering of data at school level
  2. SB Sedentary behavior, LPA Light physical activity behavior, MVPA moderate-to-vigorous physical activity behavior, CMP counts per minute, N number of participants, T0 baseline measurement, T1 measurement at year one, T2 measurement at year 2, SD standard deviation, CI Confidence Interval, B unstandardized beta coefficient, p = p value.
  3. Bold numbers are significant at p < .05.
  4. aMean is the observed SB, LPA, MVPA and CPM of participants with data
  5. bUnstandardized beta coefficient of linear mixed model adjusted for child age, gender, ethnicity, and BMI z-score at baseline, residential socioeconomic status score at baseline and weather conditions (i.e., sunshine, temperature, and precipitation)
  6. cSignificantly different at baseline compared with the control group, analyzed using the Welch’s test