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Table 3 Child-reported change in the percentage of children consuming breakfast before or specific foods and drinks at school for the intervention and control groups after one and 2 years (Model 1) and one- and two-year intervention effects (Model 2)

From: Effects of the KEIGAAF intervention on the BMI z-score and energy balance-related behaviors of primary school-aged children

  Model 1 Model 2
Intervention group (N = 419) Control group (N = 104) Intervention group vs control group
N Obs %a OR (95% CI)b p N Obs %a OR (95% CI)b p OR (95% CI)b p
Breakfast (%yes) T0 413 93.0    101 87.1     
T1 376 90.2 0.70 (0.42; 1.14) 0.15 90 76.7 0.46 (0.24; 0.91) 0.03 1.52 (0.63; 3.69) 0.35
T2 353 89.0 0.62 (0.38; 1.02) 0.06 81 75.3 0.38 (0.19; 0.75) 0.01 1.68 (0.69; 4.08) 0.26
Fruit or vegetables (%yes) T0 412 89.3c    101 75.2     
T1 375 89.9 1.43 (0.94; 2.18) 0.09 90 75.6 0.95 (0.50; 1.80) 0.86 1.45 (0.70; 3.12) 0.31
T2 352 90.9 1.60 (1.03; 2.49) 0.04 81 74.1 0.92 (0.48; 1.79) 0.81 1.70 (0.78; 3.70) 0.18
Candy, cookies or snacks (%yes) T0 412 43.2    101 42.6     
T1 376 42.0 0.96 (0.74; 1.25) 0.76 90 35.6 0.76 (0.43; 1.32) 0.33 1.30 (0.71; 2.37) 0.40
T2 353 37.1 0.77 (0.59; 1.01) 0.06 81 38.3 0.87 (0.49; 1.54) 0.64 0.89 (0.48; 1.66) 0.72
Sugar-sweetened
beverages (%yes)
T0 412 54.1    101 47.5     
T1 376 50.0 0.87 (0.68; 1.11) 0.24 90 13.3 0.17 (0.09; 0.33) 0.00 4.86 (2.44; 9.68) 0.00
T2 352 38.1 0.52 (0.40; 0.67) 0.00 81 7.4 0.09 (0.04; 0.20) 0.00 5.68 (2.37; 13.59) 0.00
Water (%yes) T0 408 57.6    101 59.4     
T1 376 63.0 1.18 (0.93; 1.51) 0.18 90 95.6 15.56 (5.75; 42.12) 0.00 0.08 (0.03; 0.22) 0.00
T2 352 71.6 1.85 (1.43; 2.41) 0.00 81 86.4 5.17 (2.52; 10.58) 0.00 0.39 (0.19; 0.79) 0.01
  1. Note. Model 1: predictor variable is time (reference group = baseline measurement) / Model 2: predictor variable is time*condition (reference group = control group*baseline measurement). Analyses were conducted using GEE analysis with adjustment for clustering of data within persons. N number of participants, I intervention group, C control group, T0 baseline measurement, T1 measurement at year one, T2 measurement at year two, Obs % observed percentage, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, p = p value
  2. Bold numbers are significant at p < .05.
  3. aObserved percentage of children that consumed breakfast on the morning of data collection and that consumed the food/drink the previous day at school
  4. bOdds ratio of GEE model adjusted for child age, gender, ethnicity, BMI z-score at baseline, and residential socioeconomic status score at baseline
  5. cSignificantly different at baseline compared with the control group, analyzed using the Chi-square test