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Table 4 Parent-reported change in the percentage of children adhering to or daily consuming specific foods and drinks for the intervention and control groups after one and 2 years (Model 1) and one- and two-year intervention effects (Model 2)

From: Effects of the KEIGAAF intervention on the BMI z-score and energy balance-related behaviors of primary school-aged children

  Model 1 Model 2
Intervention group (N = 419) Control group (N = 104) Intervention group vs. control group
N Obs %a OR (95% CI)b p N Obs %a OR (95% CI)b p OR (95% CI)b p
Adherence fruit recommendation (%yes) T0 263 38.4    48 27.1     
T1 242 42.6 1.08 (0.79; 1.48) 0.63 57 22.8 0.81 (0.32; 2.05) 0.66 1.34 (0.56; 3.18) 0.51
T2 252 35.3 0.80 (0.58; 1.10) 0.17 58 20.7 0.64 (0.25; 1.64) 0.35 1.22 (0.50; 2.96) 0.67
Adherence vegetable recommendation (%yes) T0 250 26.0    52 23.1     
T1 233 22.7 0.76 (0.51; 1.14) 0.19 58 12.1 0.44 (0.15; 1.27) 0.13 1.81 (0.61; 5.37) 0.29
T2 239 17.3 0.54 (0.35; 0.83) 0.01 54 3.7 0.12 (0.02; 0.56) 0.01 4.49 (0.99; 20.29) 0.05
Daily consumption of snacks (%yes) T0 274 46.7    52 50.0     
T1 255 31.0 0.56 (0.42; 0.74) 0.00 61 44.3 0.90 (0.47; 1.74) 0.75 0.60 (0.31; 1.17) 0.13
T2 264 34.5 0.70 (0.53; 0.93) 0.01 63 28.6 0.42 (0.21; 0.85) 0.02 1.59 (0.79; 3.17) 0.19
Daily consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (%yes) T0 270 55.9    51 52.9     
T1 249 43.8 0.67 (0.49; 0.89) 0.01 62 59.7 1.54 (0.77; 3.10) 0.22 0.45 (0.22; 0.92) 0.03
T2 265 37.4 0.53 (0.39; 0.71) 0.00 63 42.9 0.80 (0.40; 1.60) 0.53 0.68 (0.33; 1.40) 0.30
Daily consumption of water (%yes) T0 273 67.4    52 61.5     
T1 251 70.5 1.22 (0.90; 1.66) 0.20 62 72.6 2.00 (1.04; 3.85) 0.04 0.62 (0.30; 1.27) 0.19
T2 267 71.2 1.28 (0.95; 1.74) 0.11 62 71.0 1.85 (0.96; 3.59) 0.07 0.72 (0.35; 1.47) 0.36
  1. Note. Model 1: predictor variable is time (reference group = baseline measurement) / Model 2: predictor variable is time*condition (reference group = control group*baseline measurement). Analyses were conducted using GEE analysis with adjustment for clustering of data within persons. I Intervention group, C control group, N number of participants, T0 baseline measurement, T1 measurement at year one, T2 measurement at year two, Obs % observed percentage, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, p = p value
  2. Bold numbers are significant at p < .05.
  3. aObserved percentage of children adhering to the recommendation (for fruit and vegetables) or daily consuming the food/drink (i.e., snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and water)
  4. bOdds ratio of GEE model adjusted for child age, gender, ethnicity, BMI z-score at baseline, and residential socioeconomic status score at baseline