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Table 1 Main Characteristics of the Reviewed Studies

From: Bullying victimization, physical inactivity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents: a meta-analysis

Study Country Participants/age/female (%) Types of bullying PA quality Sedentary behavior/Screen time assessment Major findings Covariates Methodological appraisal
Alfonso-Rosa 2020 [19] 82 countries 273,121 / 13–15 years / 51.5 T Self-reported Self-reported Excessive sitting time is associated with bullying in the study sample, while physical activity does not. Age, screen time or physical activity 8
Busch 2013 [20] The Netherlands 2425 / 11–18 years / 55.0 T TV, internet use and video game playing Screen time was not associated with bullying Sex, age, school, year of school, educational level, ethnicity and socioeconomic status 7
Case 2015 [21] USA 4602 / 13–17 years / 48.3 T Self-reported Not meeting PA recommendations differs by gender and by the interaction between bullied status and weight status Weight status, grade, and race/ethnicity 7
Corral-Pernía 2017 [22] Spain 54 /12–18 years / 55.5 T, CY Accelerometry Addressing PA practice recommendations not protect against the direct involvement of bullying and cyberbullying Not mentioned 6
Demissie 2014 [23] USA 16,410 / 12–18 / 47.8 T Self-reported TV and video game playing Being bullied on school property was associated with lower odds of physical activity among males and higher odds of video game/computer use among females Race/ethnicity and grade 8
Henriksen 2015 [24] Denmark 6269 / 11–15 years / 50.8 T Self-reported The association between exposure to bullying and physical inactivity was significant among students from lower social classes and unclassifiable social class but not among students from higher social classes. Sex and age 8
Herazo-Berltrán 2019 [25] Colombia 991 / 7–17 years / 56.7 T Self-reported The students who did not regularly engage in physical activity had a higher probability of being victims of school harassment 7
Hertz 2015 [26] USA 13,846 / 12–18 years / Not mentioned T, CY Self-reported TV and video game playing Among male but not female students, having been a victim of both kinds of bullying, as well as having been only in-person bullied, was associated with watching television 3 or more hours per day. While having been a victim of both kinds of bullying was positively associated with using computers 3 or more hours per day among female and male students, having been electronically bullied only also was associated with computer use among male students. Being physically active for at least 60 min/day on 0 of the past 7 days was associated with having been a victim of both kinds of bullying among male students but not female students Race/ethnicity and grade 8
Katapally 2018 [27] Canada 44,861 / 13–18 years / 49.4 T, CY Self-reported Bullying perpetration, victimization, or both are associated with increased multiple screen-time behaviors among youth Age, ethnicity, weekly disposable income, daylight hours, and weather variables 8
Kelishadi 2015 [28] Iran 14,880 / 6–18 years/ 49.2 T Self-reported Prolonged time spent watching TV or using a computer for pleasure may increase the risk of being bullied. Socioeconomic status, physical activity, sleep hours, family size and body mass index 8
Mendez 2019 [29] Spain 1248 / 11–18 years / 50.8 T Self-reported Students who practiced physical activity in the recommended frequency rated as healthy, at least four or more times per week, had higher values in the indicators of aggressiveness than students who practiced with a lower frequency Not mentioned 7
Merrill and Hanson 2016 [30] USA 13,583 / 12–18 years / 48.7 T, CY Self-reported TV and video game playing Protective behaviors against bullying victimization and cyberbullying included being physically active. In contrast, students who play video games an average of 3 or more hours per day are at greater risk of being bullied and cyberbullying Sex, race/ethnicity, and grade 8
Rech 2013 [31] Brazil 1230 / 11–14 years / 49.3 T Sitting-time The schoolchildren who reported sedentary habits for more than three hours a day were 55% more likely to be victims Not mentioned 8
Roman 2013 [32] USA 7786 / 10–17 years / Not mentioned T Self-reported Students who reported being bullied had significantly lower odds of engaging in more than one day of physical activity for 60 min or more School-level variables 8
Rostad 2018 [33] USA 15,624 / 12–18 years / 49.6 T, CY Self-reported TV and video game playing Media use was related to experiences of bullying for both male and female students Race/ethnicity, grade, sexual identity, and substance use—current alcohol use (past 30 days) and current marijuana use (past 30 days) 8
Sampasa-Kanyinga 2020 [34] Canada 5615 / 14–17 years/ 57.6 T, CY Self-reported TV, internet use and video game playing Meeting the screen time recommendation was associated with lower odds of being a victim Age, sex, ethnoracial background, subjective socioeconomic status, and body mass index z-score 8
Storch 2007 [35] USA 100 / 8–18 years / 58.7 T Self-reported Inverse relation was identified between the reports of peer victimization and the levels of physical activity Not mentioned 7
Watanabe 2017 [36] Brazil 95 / 12–14 years/ 49.5 T Accelerometry Weight-teasing was not related to physical activity Not mentioned 7
  1. CY Cyberbullying; PA Physical activity; T Traditional; TV Television