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Table 4 Summary of outcomes that had statistically significant effects based on subgroups with two or more studies

From: Exercise and colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise safety, feasibility and effectiveness

Health outcomes No. of studies Total participants I2
(%)
Standardized mean difference
(95% CI)
p-value
   Exercise Usual care    
Quality of life
 Exercise mode
  Aerobic exercise 4 108 83 0 0.06 (−0.23, 0.35) 0.69
  Mixed mode exercise 6 202 194 0 0.25 (0.05, 0.44) 0.02*
  Other 1 a a a a a
 Supervision
  Supervised 5 77 73 0 0.39 (0.07, 0.72) 0.02*
  Unsupervised 6 260 231 0 0.15 (−0.03, 0.33) 0.10
 Intervention duration
   < 12 weeks 2 44 40 0 0.31 (−0.10, 0.98) 0.12
   ≥ 12 weeks 9 293 264 0 0.19 (0.02, 0.36) 0.02*
 Treatment
  Pre-treatment 0 a a a a a
  During treatment 5 111 76 0 0.05 (−0.24, 0.35) 0.73
  Post-treatment 6 226 228 0 0.27 (0.08, 0.45) < 0.01*
Fatigue
 Supervision
  Supervised 4 59 61 0 0.43 (0.06, 0.79) 0.02*
  Unsupervised 5 116 91 0 0.12 (−0.17, 0.40) 0.42
Aerobic fitness
 Exercise mode
  Aerobic exercise 5 123 100 0 0.46 (0.18, 0.73) < 0.01*
  Mixed mode exercise 12 339 330 91 0.64 (0.07, 1.20) 0.01*
  Other exercise 0 a a a a a
 Supervision
  Supervised 7 136 129 80 0.45 (−0.14, 1.03) 0.14
  Unsupervised 10 326 301 91 0.65 (0.08, 1.21) 0.03*
 Intervention duration
   < 12 weeks 7 209 206 94 0.47 (−0.43, 1.38) 0.31
   ≥ 12 weeks 10 253 224 56 0.56 (0.25, 0.87) < 0.01*
 Timing regarding treatment
  Pre-surgery 3 136 137 98 1.00 (−0.72, 2.72) 0.25
  During chemotherapy 5 115 81 46 0.72 (0.27, 1.17) < 0.01*
  Post-treatment 9 211 212 68 0.28 (−0.09, 0.0.65) 0.13
 Cancer
  Colorectal cancer 10 371 338 91 0.55 (0.01, 1.08) 0.04*
  Colon only 7 91 92 78 0.61 (−0.07, 1.28) 0.08
  Rectal only 0 a a a a a
Upper-body strength
 Exercise mode
  Aerobic exercise 0 a a − a a − a
  Mixed mode exercise 5 132 124 19 0.39 (0.09, 0.69) 0.01*
  Other exercise 0 a a a a − a
 Supervision
  Supervised 2 24 21 0 0.10 (−0.49, 0.69) 0.75
  Unsupervised 3 108 103 30 0.47 (0.11, 0.83) 0.01*
 Cancer
  Colorectal cancer 3 117 108 36 0.43 (0.07, 0.78) 0.02*
  Colon only 2 15 16 12 0.14 (−0.62, 0.90) 0.72
  Rectal only 0 a a a a a
Body fat
 Supervision
  Supervised 2 39 42 21 0.20 (−0.29, 0.69) 0.43
  Unsupervised 5 154 187 85 0.67 (0.05, 1.30) 0.03*
 Intervention duration
   < 12 weeks 2 39 42 21 0.20 (−0.29, 0.69) 0.43
   ≥ 12 weeks 5 154 187 85 0.67 (0.05, 1.30) 0.03*
 Treatment
  Pre-treatment 0 a a a a a
  During treatment 1 a a − a a − a
  Post-treatment 6 162 167 80 0.63 (0.09, 1.18) 0.02*
  1. a Insufficient number of studies
  2. * Statistically significant (p < 0.05)