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Table 5 Summary of research and practice recommendations for garden-based interventions

From: Garden-based interventions and early childhood health: an umbrella review

Research Recommendations Practice Recommendations
Examine impact on specific subpopulations [30, 31, 49] Comprehensive school garden interventions [27, 51]
Examine long-term impacts of garden-based interventions [30, 31, 48, 49, 51,52,53,54,55,56, 58] Utilization of gardens as a way to improve nutritional outcomes via vegetable provision [31, 49, 52, 55, 58]
Include educational impacts of school-based gardens [27, 31, 54] Integration of school-gardens into curricular instruction [27]
Assess impact of garden-based interventions on broader community [30, 51, 52, 54] Develop age-appropriate garden-based curriculum rooted in age-appropriate evaluation tools [30]
Start up and sustainability of school-based gardens [30, 50,51,52, 54, 55, 58, 59] Involve parents and staff to achieve buy-in and establish rapport [30, 84]
Enhanced rigor of study design including objective measures, power [27, 30, 31, 48, 50, 53,54,55, 57] Multi-disciplinary collaboration, including engagement with local stakeholders and policymakers [51, 53,54,55]
Cost-effectiveness of garden-based interventions [48, 49, 51,52,53, 55, 59] Focus on sustainable behavior change [49, 58]
Enhanced description of intervention methodology, standardized reporting process [27, 31, 55, 56] Examine instructional quality in delivery of interventions [27]
Increased use of standardized measures of child health outcomes [30, 31, 48, 54,55,56,57,58] Employ multicomponent interventions, particularly in child care settings [59, 60]
Include qualitative methods [31] Include taste exposure as part of intervention [59]
Explore mediation effects [54]  
Examine role in neophobia/fussy eating [59]