# Table 5 Multilevel regression models for leisure physical activity (PA)

Logistic Regression(1)
Any leisure-time PA
(0 = < 10 min/week, 1 ≥ 10 min/week)
Linear Regression(2)
Non-zero reported leisure-time PA
LOG10 (min/week) within participants with min/week ≥10
OR (95%CI) p β (95%CI) p
Independent variables
Land use mix-diversity (score 1–5) (3) 1.12 (1.05,1.20) 0.001 0.127 (0.051,0.193) 0.028
Land use mix-access (score 1–4) (3) 1.27 (1.13,1.43) < 0.001 0.007 (−0.035,0.050) 0.740
Walking/cycling facilities (score 1–4) (3) 1.18 (1.09,1.28) < 0.001 −0.028 (− 0.057,0.002) 0.063
Aesthetics (score 1–4) (3) 1.10 (1.02,1.18) 0.016 −0.007 (− 0.033,0.020) 0.630
Safety from crime (score 1–4) (3) 1.04 (0.95,1.13) 0.400 −0.011 (− 0.042,0.019) 0.462
Proximity of public open spaces (score 1–5) (4) 0.98 (0.93,1.03) 0.324 0.005 (−0.012,0.023) 0.545
Proximity of shopping centers (4) 1.02 (0.98,1.07) 0.255 0.010 (−0.004,0.024) 0.160
Street connectivity items (5)
The streets in my neighbourhood do not have many cul-de-sacs (dead-end streets). 0.98 (0.94,1.03) 0.526 −0.014 (− 0.032,0.004) 0.120
The distance between intersections in my neighbourhood is usually short (100 yards or less; the length of a football field or less). 0.98 (0.92,1.04) 0.508 −0.006 (− 0.027,0.015) 0.557
There are many alternative routes for getting from place to place in my neighbourhood. (I don’t have to go the same way every time.) 1.02 (0.96,1.09) 0.509 0.015 (−0.008,0.038) 0.190
Safety from traffic items (5)
There is so much traffic along nearby streets that it makes it difficult or unpleasant to walk in my neighbourhood (reversed). 1.00 (0.94,1.06) 0.960 0.009 (−0.011,0.029) 0.367
The speed of traffic on most nearby streets is usually slow (50 km/h or less). 1.01 (0.96,1.07) 0.663 −0.007 (− 0.027,0.013) 0.511
Most drivers exceed the posted speed limits while driving in my neighbourhood (reversed). 1.05 (0.98,1.11) 0.154 0.001 (−0.020,0.022) 0.933
There are crosswalks and pedestrian signals to help walkers cross busy streets in my neighbourhood. 0.97 (0.92,1.02) 0.253 0.018 (−0.001,0.037) 0.066
1. OR odds ratio, β regression coefficient, CI confidence interval
2. (1)Multilevel logistic regression model (country as 2nd level) with leisure-time physical activity (0 = <10 min/week, 1 ≥ 10 min/week) as dependent variable, adjusted for sex, age, and socioeconomic level
3. (2)Multilevel linear regression model (country as 2nd level) with leisure-time physical activity (LOG10 (min/week)) as dependent variable in participants with leisure physical activity ≥10 min/week, adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic level;
4. (3)higher scores indicate perception of higher land use mix-diversity, higher land use mix-access, more walking/cycling facilities, better aesthetics, and more safety from crime
5. (4)higher scores indicate greater proximity
6. (5)4-point scale: strongly disagree (1), disagree (2), agree (3), strongly agree (4)