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Table 5 Summary of findings and quality of evidence assessment for physical activity interventions vs control

From: Evidence on physical activity and osteoporosis prevention for people aged 65+ years: a systematic review to inform the WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour

Outcome Summary of findings Quality of evidence assessment (GRADE)
Effect sizea (95% CI) n (trials) Study limitations Imprecision Inconsistency Publication bias Quality
Main outcome 0.15 (0.05 to 0.25) 1560 (20) -1b None None None Moderate
Femoral neck BMD 0.09 (− 0.03 to 0.21) 1032 (14) -1b None None -1c Low
Lumbar spine BMD 0.17 (0.04 to 0.30) 874 (11) -1b None None None Moderate
  1. BMD bone mineral density, n number of participants
  2. apooled standardised effect size and 95% confidence intervals (positive value favours physical activity interventions)
  3. b > 50% of studies in the meta-analysis had a PEDro score < 6/10
  4. cSerious small study effects suggested by visual inspection of funnel plot or sensitivity analysis investigating the impact of removal of small studies on pooled estimate