Skip to main content

Table 3 Results from the Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA), Bi-factor item analyses, and Item Response Modeling analyses a

From: Calibration of the food parenting practice (FPP) item bank: tools for improving the measurement of food parenting practices of parents of 5–12-year-old children

Items CFA Bi-Factor Item Analysis Drop code
Constructs
(Cronbach α)
λ Constructs λ I-ECV
AUTONOMY PROMOTION FOOD PARENTING DOMAIN
1 Have your child help prepare dinner meals Child
Involvement
(.75)
.87 Child involvement .22 .06  
2 Have your child help you prepare vegetable dishes .93 .27 .09  
3 Give your child a choice of veggies to eat at dinner .59 .27 .24  
4 Ask your child’s opinion about what to make for meals .48 .26 .37  
5 Serve healthy foods (veggies) in the way child likes Encourage
(.77)
.65 Autonomy support .59 .83  
8 Tell child you like it and that he or she might like it also .83 .74 .78  
9 Say something nice if child taste a NEW vegetable / food .82 .72 .78  
10 Tell your child that colorful veggies are healthier Education / reasoning
(.91)
.72 .69 .91  
11 Read food labels to help child choose healthier options .67 .63 .81  
12 Explain that eating healthy food gives more energy .80 .85 .96  
13 Explain how good it is to eat or taste vegetable .83 .87 .97  
14 Will do better in school by eating healthier/veggies .75 .74 .98  
16 Teach your child to stop eating when full .66 .59 .65  
17 Give child ideas on how to make healthy food choices .79 .76 .88  
18 Explain your reasons for food rules tell .76 .73 .89  
20 Explain that treats are sometimes food .63 .62 .97  
21 Teach your child to eat food from all the food groups .65 .63 .91  
22 Help child set goals to eat more veggies/healthier .76 .70 .75  
CONTROL FOOD PARENTING DOMAIN
1 Keep away from specific sweet or salty treats Restriction for weight
(.80)
.52 Restriction for weight .34 .40  
2 Keep a record of how much your child eats .86 .62 .55  
3 Not allow child to take second helpings at dinner .84 .60 .52  
4 Decide how much/how often your child eats .53 .34 .26 LD
5 Talk to your child about dieting/loosing weight .88 .63 .55  
6 Give sweet or salty treat to make your child feel Use food to control negative emotions
(.95)
.90 Coercive control .81 .79  
7 Offer a treat when child is worried/stressed .92 .82 .77  
8 Offer a treat to calm your child down .95 .86 .84  
9 Give treat when talking/doing chores .94 .86 .86  
10 Give treat to keep when child is bored .92 .84 .82  
11 Child gets dessert if tastes veggies served Threats & bribes
(.94)
.75 .67 .69  
12 Promise child dessert if finish meal .76 .68 .70  
13 Send child to room if does not finish meal .90 .89 .98  
14 Reduce TV/ videogame if child does not finish meal .80 .74 .81  
15 Reward good behaviours with a sweet or salty treat .76 .71 .84  
16 Take away dessert for bad behaviour .79 .74 .84  
17 Offer a treat to make child do something .88 .85 .96  
18 Take away TV/videogame if not eat veggies .90 .86 .90  
19 Send child to room for refusing to eat veggies .93 .91 .99  
20 Tell child will be punished for eating without asking .81 .80 .99  
25 Make child stay at table until all the food is eaten Pressure to eat
(.79)
.49 .39 .96  
26 Make child eat more even if s/he says “I am full” .72 .51 .42b  
27 Physically struggle with child to eat meal .88 .65 .54 I-ECV
28 Guilt child into eating his or her meal .84 .62 .50 I-ECV
29 Show disappointment if child does not eat veggies .73 .53 .48 I-ECV
30 Make sure child eats all veggies at dinner time .64 .52 .99  
32 You force child to eat some veggies every day .45 .37 .97  
34 Hide veggies in the food you serve Intrusive control
(.79)
.68 .64 .96  
35 Make child feel bad about what s/he eats .84 .78 .92  
36 Not allow child to have a treat at parties .78 .72 .82  
37 Make a lighter meal, if child ate more earlier .66 .61 .74  
STRUCTURE FOOD PARENTING DOMAIN
1 Eat healthy snacks when child is around Modeling
(.69)
.66 Non-directive support .57 .87  
3 Eat healthy portions while with child .68 .47 .18b  
5 Enjoy eating veggies when with child .76 .64 .86  
7 Encourage child to eat food as served Prompt to eat
(.83)
.68 .70 1.00  
8 Encourage child to eat more if not full .73 .68 .80  
9 Get child to eat more veggies .79 .77 .97  
10 Encourage child to eat more .76 .72 .75  
11 Get child to taste a new veggies .74 .78 .95  
12 Family meals prepared from scratch Meal preparation (.68) .59 Providing healthy eating opportunities .59 .94  
14 Serve veggies your child likes .72 .68 .95  
15 Serve colourful veggies with meals .77 .81 .90  
22 Serve a vegetable multiple times Exposure to variety / selection
(.75)
.67 .59 .96  
23 Serve child at least 2 different veggies .68 .71 .99  
24 Serve child at least 5 different veggies .77 .77 .75  
25 Serve at least 5 different fruits .70 .64 .77  
26 Consistently served veggies since young .45 .47 1.00  
27 Foods from different countries / cultures .47 .42 .89 DRF
28 Know how many treats child has Rules and limits (.86) .69 Rules and limits NA NA  
29 Limit sweet or salty treats .81 NA NA  
31 Do not let child drink soda/sugary drinks .61 NA NA  
33 Limit size of treats child eats .82 NA NA  
34 Expect child to eat what you serve .40 NA NA  
35 If child eats a treat, expect next healthy .72 NA NA  
36 Expect child to drink mostly water/milk .68 NA NA  
37 Ask those who care for child to limit treats .64 NA NA  
39 Child ask permission before eating treat .73 NA NA  
41 Encourage to take small portion for treats Redirection
(.61)
.72 Redirection NA NA  
44 Talk/agree about treat options with child .66 NA NA  
47 Make child eat dinner meals at the table Meal routines (.74) .81 Meal routines NA NA  
50 Eat dinner together as a family .73 NA NA  
52 No play/talk/text while eating .70 NA NA  
53 No TV while eating .66 NA NA  
58 Keep treats out of your child’s reach Covert control
(.76)
.80 Covert control NA NA  
59 Hide sugary drinks so child cannot find .81 NA NA  
61 Throw away leftover treats .68 NA NA  
62 Not bring sugary drinks into home .59 NA NA LDb
63 Eat out or get take-out food for meals Accommodating the child (.81) .56 Accommodating the child NA NA  
65 Give in and let child have dessert .74 NA NA  
67 Allow child to skip meals .76 NA NA  
69 Make only the foods child asks for meals .73 NA NA  
70 Buy a treat to fill child when on the go .76 NA NA  
  1. aAn expanded version of this table (showing correlations among constructs and content drop) is shown in Additional file 1: Appendix A
  2. Drop code: DRF: Deleted since item is not invariant (significant Differential Response Functioning); I-ECV (explained common variance for a single item) is less than .50 I-ECV; and LD = LD Local dependence
  3. bKept from a content perspective even though the I-ECV is low or LD is present