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Table 5 Items included in the Item bank by domains of food parenting practices and constructs showing the full list of items included as well as listing the results of the efficiency analyses and items retained in the short form

From: Calibration of the food parenting practice (FPP) item bank: tools for improving the measurement of food parenting practices of parents of 5–12-year-old children

Constructs
(IRM reliability)
Items Short form
AUTONOMY PROMOTION FOOD PARENTING DOMAIN  
Child involvement
4 items
(.87)
In the past MONTH, how often did you… (answer for yourself only) (Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Often, Always)  
1 Have your child help prepare dinner meals
2 Have your child help you prepare vegetable dishes
3 Give your child a choice of vegetables to eat at dinner
4 Ask your child’s opinion about what to make for meals
Autonomy support
14 items
(.93)a
5 Serve healthy foods such as vegetables in a way your child likes to get your child to eat them  
8 Help your child try a NEW vegetable or food by telling him or her that you like it and that he or she might like it also
9 Say something nice to your child for tasting a NEW vegetable or food  
10 Tell your child that colorful vegetables such as dark green, red, orange and purple vegetables are healthier than potatoes and corn  
11 Read food labels with your child to help him or her choose healthier food or drinks  
12 Explain that eating healthy food will give your child more energy
13 Help your child eat or taste a vegetable by explaining how good it is for his or her health
14 Tell your child that eating healthier food such as vegetables will help your child do better in school  
16 Make your child think about whether he or she is full to teach your child to stop eating when full  
17 Tell your child ideas on how he or she can make healthier food choices like eating more fruit or vegetables
18 Tell your child reasons for the rules you make about food and the need to eat vegetables
20 Tell your child that sweet or salty treats should only be eaten sometimes  
21 Teach your child to eat food from all the food groups  
22 Help your child set goals to eat more vegetables or other healthier food  
CONTROL FOOD PARENTING DOMAIN  
Restriction for weight
4 items (.79)
To promote a healthy weight for your child, in the past month did you… (Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Often, Always)  
1 Keep your child away from specific sweet or salty treats (food or drinks)
2 Keep a record of how much your child eats
3 Not allow your child from taking second helpings at dinner
5 Talk to your child about losing weight?
Coercive control
23 items
(.96)a
In the past MONTH, how often did you… (Answer for yourself only) (Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Often, Always)  
6 Give your child a sweet or salty treat to make your child feel better when your child is hurt
7 Offer a sweet or salty treat when your child is worried or stressed to make your child feel better
8 Offer a sweet or salty treat to calm your child down
9 Give your child a sweet or salty treat to keep your child busy when you talking to another person or doing chores
10 Give your child a sweet or salty treat to keep your child busy when he or she is bored, even if he or she is not hungry  
11 Tell your child he or she will get dessert only if he or she tastes the vegetables you served  
12 Promise your child dessert if he or she finishes their meal  
13 Send your child to his or her room if they do not finish their meal  
14 Reduce TV or videogame time if your child does not finish his or her meal  
15 Reward your child with a sweet or salty treat for good behaviour  
16 Take away dessert as punishment for bad behaviour  
17 Offer your child a sweet or salty treat to make your child do something he or she does not want to do
18 Take away TV or videogame time if your child does not eat the vegetables you served  
19 Send your child to his or her room if your child refuses to eat the vegetables you served  
20 Tell your child they will be punished if he or she eats a sweet or salty food or drink without asking you  
25 Make your child stay at the table until all the food on his or her plate is eaten  
26 Make your child eat more even if he or she says “I am full”  
30 Make sure your child eats all his or her vegetables first at dinner time  
32 You force your child to eat some vegetables every day  
34 Hide vegetables in the food you serve as a way to get your child to eat more vegetables  
35 Make your child feel bad about what he or she eats in order to get your child to eat healthier  
36 Not allow your child to have sweet or salty treat at parties  
37 Make your child eat a lighter meal, If your child ate more than usual at the earlier meal  
STRUCTURE FOOD PARENTING DOMAIN  
Nondirective
Support
8 items
(.88)a
In the past MONTH, how often did you… (Answer for yourself only) (Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Often, Always)  
1 Eat or drink a healthy snack just because your child was around  
3 Eat healthy portions while in front of your child (for example-take a smaller portion)  
5 Show how much you enjoy eating vegetables while eating with your child  
7 Encourage your child to eat the food as it is served, without picking the vegetables out
8 Encourage your child to eat more at a meal if they don’t want to eat what is served but say they are not full
9 Try to get your child to take a few more bites of their vegetables, without forcing them
10 Encourage your child to eat more at dinner without pressuring him or her, if you feel your child has not eaten enough that day
11 Try to get your child to taste a new vegetable (but not eat all of it) even if your child thinks he or she may not like it
Provide healthy eating opportunities
8 items
(.87)a
12 Prepare your family’s meals mostly from scratch  
14 Serve vegetables your child likes with meals
15 Serve colourful vegetables (dark green, red, orange or purple vegetables) with meals
22 Serve a vegetable multiple times even if your child has not liked it in the past  
23 Serve your child at least 2 different vegetables (excluding potatoes or fries) at dinner meals
24 Serve your child at least 5 different types of vegetables in a week?
25 Serve at least 5 different fruit or berries (fresh or frozen) to your child in a week
26 How much do you agree with this statement: I have consistently served a variety of vegetables to my child since he or she was 3 years old. (Strongly agree, Agree, Neutral, Disagree, Strongly disagree)  
Rules and limits
9 items
(.88)a
28 You usually know how many sweet or salty treats your child eats or drinks at home
29 You limit how often your child eats/drinks sweet or salty treats (i.e. chips, desserts, sugary drinks)
31 You do not let your child drink soda or sugary drinks (e.g., sports drinks or fruit drinks)  
33 You limit the portion size of sweet or salty treats your child eats
34 You expect your child to eat the foods that you serve or not eat at all  
35 If your child eats a sweet or salty treat, you expect the next snack to be healthy (e.g. to be a fruit)
36 You expect your child to drink mostly water or milk with meals  
37 You ask those who help take care of your child to limit the amount of sweet or salty treats they give to your child  
39 You expect your child to ask for permission before he or she eats a sweet or salty treat or a sugary drink
Redirection
2 items
(.67)
41 Encourage your child to only take a small portion, when your child asks for a less healthy treat
44 Talk about food or drink options with your child and come to an agreement you are both happy with
Meal routines
4 items
(.78)
47 Make your child eat dinner meals at the table
50 Eat dinner together as a family (whole family)
52 NOT allow your child to play, talk or text on the phone while eating dinner
53 NOT allow your child to watch TV while eating dinner
Covert control
4 items
(.81)
58 Keep sweet and salty treats out of your child’s reach
59 Hide soda and sugary drinks in places where your child could not find them
61 Throw away left over sweet or salty treats to discourage your child from eating them
62 Not bring soda or sweet drinks into your home
Accommodating the child
5 items
(.82)
63 Eat out at restaurants or get take-out food for meals with your child
65 Give in and let your child have dessert, after you told him or her “no”
67 Allow your child to skip meals (e.g., breakfast or lunch)
69 Make only the foods your child asks for meals
70 Buy your child a sweet or salty treat as a way to fill him or her up when you are on the go
  1. IRM reliability = Empirical reliability computed from Item Response Modeling (IRM) which takes into account the ordinal nature of the data
  2. aThe IRM reliability for the short form is fixed at .80 for these constructs