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Table 1 Physical activity coaching schedule, content, theory, determinants and behaviour change techniques

From: A physical activity coaching intervention can improve and maintain physical activity and health-related outcomes in adult ambulatory hospital patients: the Healthy4U-2 randomised controlled trial

Session Week Session determinants Content Techniques
1 1 Physical activity expectations;
Physical activity past experiences;
Physical activity self-efficacy;
Physical activity values.
• Exploration of current and historical physical activity behaviours;
• Identify telephone coaching outcome expectations;
• Identify physical activity outcome expectations;
• Determine level of motivation for increasing physical activity (e.g. how motivated are you to increase physical activity on a scale of 1–10? Why did you give it a 3, as opposed to a 4 or 5?);
• Identify and address unrealistic physical activity expectations;
• Assess barriers to physical activity;
• Discuss goals and action plans.
Motivational interviewing strategies:
• Open ended questions;
• Affirmations;
• Reflections;
• Summaries;
• Develop discrepancy; and
• Illicit change talk.
Cognitive-behavioural techniques:
• Elicit PA outcome expectations and experiences;
• Elicit values and physical activity priorities;
• Identify physical activity barriers and problem solving;
• Goal setting –behavioural;
• Action planning.
2 2 Physical activity outcome expectations;
Experience regarding goal setting.
• Review of goal progress from session 1;
• Barrier identification and determine level of self-efficacy for overcoming barriers (e.g. how confident are you to overcome barrier X on a scale of 1–10? Why did you give it a 3, as opposed to a 4 or 5?);
• Progress and amend action-plan and goals;
• If physical activity goals involve program based activities (e.g. strength training, walking groups) individual to source contact details.
Motivational interviewing strategies as above.
• Illicit and explore change talk.
Cognitive-behavioural techniques:
• Problem solving;
• Goal setting;
• Focus on past success;
• Prompt experiential learning through trial and error.
3 4 Outcome expectations and experiences in relation to physical activity goal progress. • Review of goals and progress from session 2;
• Explore current experiences of physical activity;
• Barrier identification and self-efficacy strategies for overcoming barriers;
• Discuss self-monitoring strategies to monitor goal (e.g. physical activity tracking);
• Discuss intervention timelines and action plan for the next two weeks.
Motivational interviewing strategies as above.
Cognitive-behavioural techniques:
• Review of physical activity behaviour and outcome goal(s);
• Elicit current physical activity outcome experiences;
• Goal planning, and what-then plans;
• Education regarding self-monitoring of behaviour or outcomes;
• Relapse prevention.
4 6 Physical activity outcome expectations;
Exercise self-efficacy;
Coping strategies;
Future planning.
• Review of progress from session 3;
• Explore current experiences of physical activity;
• Relapse prevention - tailored to individual needs;
• Discuss intervention timelines and action plan for the next six weeks.
Motivational interviewing strategies as above.
Cognitive-behavioural techniques
• Elicit current physical activity outcome experiences;
• Coping strategies (e.g. physical activity pacing, planning);
• Engaging social support;
• Relapse prevention
5 12 Theory of behavioural maintenance; Relapse prevention; • Intervention recap;
• Review of progress from previous session and intervention as a whole;
• Identify what has helped PA changes;
• Identify what can helped PA maintenance;
• Relapse prevention – identification of potential future scenarios, and what-then plans for overcoming issues (e.g. if I experience X, then I will do Y);
• Additional follow-on services – community health promotion services/exercise services.
Motivational interviewing strategies as outlined above.
Cognitive-behavioural techniques:
• Action planning - focus on past and current success;
• Problem solving – what-if planning.
• Relapse prevention.