Skip to main content

Table 2 Studies included in this review

From: Process evaluations of early childhood obesity prevention interventions delivered via telephone or text messages: a systematic review

Trial name: First author publication year (year study commenced), Country, (Reference #) Age of child at Intervention commencement (intervention duration) in months Measured study outcomes Study design Main medium of intervention delivery Supplementary medium of intervention delivery Intervention delivery provider Intervention setting No. of sessions Parity Retention % Measurement time points Care giver age (years) Qualifications of mother
INFANT: Campbell 2008 (2008), Australia [3] 3 (15) BMI; TV viewing, PA and non-core drink & fruit, veg, dietary intake Cluster-randomised controlled trial Group sessions Text messages + mail-outs Dietitians Parent groups 6 calls (number of text messages not specified) Primiparous 100% 89 3 months, 9 months, 20 months 32.3 54.2% tertiary qualified
Carlsen 2013 (2010), Denmark [29] At birth (6) BMI; exclusive breastfeeding & any breastfeeding Randomised trial Telephone None Certified lactation consultant Participant choice 9 Primiparous 67% 85 1 months, 3 months, 6 months 31.3 Not reported
PRIMROSE: Doring 2014 (2014), Sweden [30] 9 (48) BMI and waist circumference; eating habits, physical activity Cluster-randomised trial Face-to-face Group sessions + telephone Child Health Centre nurses Child Health Centres 9 total - 7 face-to-face; 2 telephone First-time mothers, 100% primiparous unclear BMI at baseline (6–9 months); BMI at 4 years of child’s age; 30.3 66.8% tertiary qualified
Franco-Antonio 2018 (2018), Spain [31] At birth (6) Breastfeeding; breastfeeding self-efficacy Multi-centre parallel group RCT Combination: Face-to-face + telephone None Midwife or trained nurse Community 4 Primiparous (34.1%) 92 0 mo (baseline), 1 month, 3 months, 6 months 32.8 26.1% tertiary qualified
MumBubConnect Gallegos 2014 (2010), Australia [32] 2.5 (2) Breastfeeding rates and breastfeeding self-efficacy Non-concurrent, prospective comparison trial Text messages Telephone + social media Breastfeeding counsellor Participant choice 8 Not reported 86 2–3 months, 4–5 months 31 61% tertiary qualified
Gibby 2019 (2019), Hawai’I & Puerto Rico [33] Near birth (4) Weight changes; feeding practices Randomised controlled trial Text messages None Third-party web-based text messaging platform Participant choice 18 Primiparous (40.2%) 84 0-1mo and 4-6mo 27 53.5% tertiary qualified
Steps to Growing Up Healthy: Gorin 2014 (2014), USA [34] 35 (12) BMI Randomised trial Combination: Face-to-face + telephone + home visits None Medical team (clinician, paediatric resident, nurse and medical assistant); phone calls and home visits by community health worker (CHW) Paediatric primary care clinic 4 Not reported 90 35mo and 47mo 35.4 Not reported
Healthy Habits, Happy Homes: Haines 2013 (2011), USA [35] 48 (6) Behavioural outcomes: eating meals together as family, sleep duration, TV viewing time, presence of TV in child’s sleeping room) Randomised trial Combination: Home visits + telephone + text messages + educational materials None Health educator Mainly at home 48 total - 4 home visits; 4 telephone calls; 40 text messages Not reported 92 48mo and 54mo Not reported 49% tertiary qualified
Hannan 2012 (2012), USA [36] At birth (2) Weight gain Randomised clinical trial Telephone None Paediatric nurse practitioners Participant choice 6 Primiparous 100% unclear 0 and 2 months 24.1 69.1% high school qualified or more
Harris-Luna 2018 (2018), USA [37] At birth (3) Exclusive Breastfeeding and Breastfeeding duration Pragmatic design Telephone None Certified promotoras Participant choice 8 Not reported 100 0 to 12 weeks 26.36 Not reported
M528: Hmone 2017 (2015), Myanmar [38] During pregnancy 28 weeks’ gestation (9) Exclusive breastfeeding rate 2-group parallel-arm randomised controlled trial Text messages None Text messages were sent by CommConnect,Telerivet Participant choice 117 text messages Primiparous 57% 79 1,2,3,4,5 & 6 months 60% 25–34 age group 96% high school qualified
Healthy Babies: Horodynski 2011 (2011), USA [39] 1 (11) Infant growth pattern; maternal knowledge and self-efficacy; feeding practices Randomised experimental short-term longitudinal controlled trial Home visits Telephone Paraprofessional instructor Mainly at home 9 Not reported unclear 1 month (baseline), 6 months and 12 months Not reported 75% high school qualified
Jiang 2014 (2014), China [40] 3rd trimester of pregnancy (15) Duration and rate of EBF; timing of intro of solid foods; other feeding practices (eg. cup feeding, bottle feeding, food reward) Quasi-experimental design Text messages None FrontlineSMS used for sending messages Participant choice 66 Primiparous 100% 82 Breastfeeding at 4,6,12mo; Intro of solid foods at 4, 6mo; infant feeding behaviours at 12mo 25–29 age group (58.4%) 100% high school qualified
The Baby Milk Trial: Lakshman 2015 (2011), UK [41] At birth (6) Change in weight; change in BMI; skinfold thickness Explanatory, parallel, individually randomised controlled trial Combination: Face-to-face + telephone + leaflets + stickers None Research nurses Health check clinics 5 Primiparous 51.9% 87 Baseline, 6 months and 12 months 31.9 59.3% tertiary qualified
Growing Healthy: Laws 2018 (2015), Australia [42] At birth (9) Breastfeeding duration; Intro to solids; formula preparation (where applicable) Quasi-experimental design Combination: App + website + push notifications + text messages Emails + social media App and website developed by research team Participant choice 72 push notifications + text messages but App available 24 × 7 Primiparous 57.5% 80 Baseline (3mo), 6 months and 9 months 30.4 78.9% tertiary qualified
Smart Moms: Nezami 2018 (2014), USA [43] 55 (6) Child SSB consumption and BMI Two-group randomised controlled trial Combination: Group session + Website + text messages None Principal investigator Community group session 73 total - 1 group + 72 text messages Not reported 82 Baseline (56.4 mo), 3 months and 6 months post-intervention 36.6 81.5% tertiary qualified
Patel 2018 (2010), India [44] 3rd trimester of pregnancy (9) Exclusive Breastfeeding; bottle feeding Two-arm, hospital-based pilot study Combination: Telephone + text messages None Auxiliary nurse midwives Participant choice 288 total - 36 calls + 252 text messages Not reported 92 24 h after birth, weeks 6, 10 14 and at 6 months <=24 age group 50.9% 29.5% high school qualified
WIC: Pugh 2010 (2003), USA [45] At birth (6) Breastfeeding Two-group randomised controlled trial Hospital and home visits Telephone Nurse + Peer counsellor Mainly at home 17 Primiparous 50.6% 71 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks postpartum 23.1 11.3% tertiary qualified
Tahir 2013 (2010), Malaysia [46] At birth (6) Breastfeeding practice Single blinded randomised controlled trial Telephone None Certified lactation counsellors (Nurses trained in lactation counselling) Participant choice 12 Primiparous 38.1% 89 1 month, 4 months, 6 months 28.6 27.7% tertiary qualified
Baby’s first bites: van der Veek 2019 (2019), Netherlands [47] 4 (12) Vegetable consumption, vegetable liking, child eating behaviours, child anthropometrics Four-arm randomised controlled trial Combination: Print materials + telephone None Trained researchers or Master’s students Participant choice 5 100% 95 Baseline, 18, 24 and 36 months 30.4 41.6% high school qualified
Mothers & Others: Wasser 2017 (2013), USA [48] At 30 weeks’ gestation during pregnancy (14) Mean weight-for-length z-score; exclusive breastfeeding; intro to complementary foods; fruit and vegetable intake; infant sleep; and expsoure to television 2-group randomised controlled trial Combination: Home visits+ Newsletters+ text messages None Peer Educator plus Certified Lactation Consultant Mainly at home Total 130–8 home visits + 122 text messges Not reported unclear Not reported Not reported Not reported
Healthy Beginnings: Wen 2007 (2007), Australia [2] At 30 weeks’ gestation during pregnancy (26) Duration of breastfeeding; delayed introduction of solids; feeding habits; tv viewing; active play; overweight and obesity Randomised controlled trial Home visits Telephone Specially trained community nurse Mainly at home 8 plus pro-active telephone Primiparous 100% 75 Baseline, 6 months; 12 months; 24 months 26 80.4% high school qualified
CHAT: Wen 2017 (2017), Australia [1] At 28 weeks’ gestation during pregnancy (15) Tummy time, drinking water, cup feeding, TV viewing, BMIz, TV viewing, fruit / vegetable intake 3-arm parallel randomised controlled trial Combination: Telephone + intervention booklets (or) text messages + intervention booklets Email Child and family health nurse (telephone); automated SMS Participant choice 6 calls or 48 text messages Primiparous 54% 80 Baseline (on recruitment); 6 months; 12 months < 30 age group 70% 68% Tertiary qualified
Linked trial for HB: Wen 2019 (2019), Australia [19] 24 (12) BMI and BMIz; diet, PA and screen time; cost-effectiveness Parallel randomised controlled trial Combination: Telephone + text messages + intervention booklets Email Child and Family Health Nurse/midwife Participant choice 3 calls plus 48 text messages Ongoing ongoing Baseline at 24 months and 36 months of child’s age Ongoing Ongoing