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Table 3 Study characteristics

From: Process evaluations of early childhood obesity prevention interventions delivered via telephone or text messages: a systematic review

Characteristic Category Studies
n %a
STUDY
 Year study commenced (N = 24) 2003 to 2011 5 21
2012 to 2016 7 29
2017 to 2019 12 50
 Country of studies (N = 24) Australia 6 25
China 1 4
Denmark 1 4
India 1 4
Malaysia 1 4
Myanmar 1 4
Netherlands 1 4
Spain 1 4
Sweden 1 4
UK 1 4
USA 9 38
 Study design (N = 24) RCT 18 75
Cluster RCT 2 8
Non-concurrent, prospective comparison trial 1 4
Pragmatic design 1 4
Quasi-experimental design 2 8
 Participant retention rate (N = 24) > 90% 6 25
80–90% 9 38
< 80% 4 17
Not specified/unclear/ongoing 5 21
MEDIUM
 Intervention setting (N = 24) Community settings (Child health centres, parent groups, health check clinics, primary care) 6 25
Home 5 21
Participant choice 13 54
 Mode of intervention delivery (N = 24) Face-to-face (group or home visits or community settings) + Supplementary telephone 7 29
Face-to-face (group or home visits or community settings) + Supplementary text messages 3 12
Face-to-face (group or home visits or community settings) + Supplementary telephone and text messages 1 4
Telephone 5 21
Telephone (incl. apps) + Text messages 5 21
Text messages 3 12
POPULATION
 Age of child at intervention commencement (N = 24) Prior to child’s birth (during pregnancy) 6 25
0–3 months 10 42
4–6 months 3 12
7–9 months 1 4
> 12 months 4 17
 Mean age of mother (N = 20) 21–30 years 12 60
31–40 years 8 40
 Parity of mothers (N = 14) Primiparous 100% 5 36
Primiparous 50–99% 6 43
Primiparous < 50% 3 21
 Qualifications of mother (N = 18) Tertiary (> 50%) 9 50
Tertiary (< 50%) 2 11
High school (> 50%) 5 28
High school (< 50%) 2 11
INTERVENTION
 Intervention duration (N = 24) ≤ 6 months 11 46
7–12 months 7 29
13–24 months 4 17
>  24 months 2 8
 Intervention deliverers (N = 24) Automated 5 21
Counsellor 1 4
Dietitians 2 8
Health Educator/Instructor 4 17
Lactation consultant 1 4
Medical Team 1 4
Nurse + Peer Counsellor 1 4
Nurses / Midwives 9 38
Number of intervention sessions
 Face-to-face ± telephone 1 to 9 16  
10 to 19 2  
> 20 1  
 Text messages 1 to 9 1  
10 to 19 1  
20 to 49 3  
> 50 6  
OUTCOMES
 Number of outcomes measured (N = 24) One 6  
Two 4  
Three 9  
Four or more 5  
 Child outcomes measured BMIz 13  
Weight gain 3  
Breastfeeding 16  
Solid feeding / food habits 15  
Tummy time 3  
Play time / Physical activity 5  
Sleep duration / sleep quality 4  
TV viewing / Screen time 7  
Goal setting for mothers 4  
Mother’s well-being 2  
 Measurement time points (child’s age) 0–3 months 24  
4–6 months 16  
7–9 months 3  
10–12 months 5  
12–24 months 4  
>  24 months 9  
PROCESS EVALUATION / SATISFACTION
 Process evaluation / satisfaction (N = 24) Mention of process evaluation 8 33
Mention of Satisfaction measure 3 12
 Evaluation post-intervention Quantitative survey 1  
Qualitative interviews 5  
 Evaluation during intervention Quantitative survey 8  
Qualitative interviews 4  
  1. Abbreviations: RCT randomised controlled trial; UK United Kingdom; USA United States of America
  2. aNumbers rounded so total may not add up to 100