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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: The effect of behaviour change interventions on changes in physical activity and anthropometrics in ambulatory hospital settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Country Study Population N
(% male)
Mean age
(SD)
Intervention delivery Underlying Theory a Behaviour change techniques a Length of intervention Length of follow-up Outcome measures
Aas, 2005 [32] Norway Overweight patients with T2DM 38 (63%) 57 ± 6 14 x group education sessions;
2 x counselling sessions over 12 months, delivered in person;
Group exercise sessions delivered twice a week
Not stated Goal setting 12 months 12 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement
Ahmadi, 2020 [33] Germany & Denmark Patients with cerebrovascular disease 2098 (33%) 67 ± 10 8 x individual counselling sessions over 24 months, delivered in person MI Feedback on behaviour;
Feedback on outcome
2 years 3 years Anthropometric: NS;
Physical Activity: Self-reported
Alsaleh, 2016 [28] Jordan Patients with CVD 156 (53%) 58 ± 9 6 × 15–20 min counselling sessions over 6 months delivered via telephone;
Educational text messages were provided 2 per week for first 3 months, and 1 per week for last 3 months
Social Cognitive Theory; Self-Efficacy
Theory
Feedback;
Goal setting;
Self-monitoring; MI techniques
6 months 9 months Anthropometric: NS;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using IPAQ
Altenburg, 2014 [58] Netherlands Patients with COPD 155 (65%) 62 ± 4 5 × 30 min counselling sessions over 12 weeks delivered in person Goal setting and task performance Goal setting;
MI techniques
3 months 15 months Physical Activity: Pedometer
Barrett, 2018 [34] Australia Insufficiently physically active adults 72 (25%) 53 ± 8 1 x group education session;
8 × 30-min individual sessions over 12 weeks, delivered via telephone
Integrated MI and CBT Goal setting, action planning, self-monitoring, personal feedback; relapse prevention 3 months 6 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Actigraph Accelerometer
Cakir, 2006 [35] Turkey Patients with hypertension 70 (58%) 52 ± 8 1 × 30-min group lecture;
4 × 60-min group education classes;
4 x individual counselling sessions, delivered in person
Not stated Education;
Stress management;
Coping strategies
3 months 6 months Anthropometric: NS;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile.
Carrasquillo, 2017 [36] USA Latinos with T2DM 300 (45%) 55 ± 7 4 x individual counselling sessions over 12 months, delivered in person;
12 x individual counselling sessions over 12 months, delivered via telephone;
Intervention participants were invited to monthly educational groups and bimonthly exercise groups in parks located within a convenient proximity to their homes.
Not stated MI skills; Education 12 months 12 months Anthropometric: NS;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using IPAQ
Cheung, 2019 [37] Australia Post-partum women with GD 60 (0%) 34 ± 4 2 × 30 min individual counselling sessions over 6 months, delivered in person;
1 x follow-up session, up to 12-weeks post-partum, delivered via phone
Focused on the adoption phase of behaviour change Not stated 6 months 6 months Anthropometric: Self-reported;
Physical Activity: Fitbit
Dogru, 2019 [59] Turkey Patients with T2DM 60 (32%) NS 4 × 15-20 m individual counselling sessions, delivered once a month for 4-months via telephone MI MI techniques 4 months 4 months Anthropometric: Self-reported
Duscha, 2018 [38] USA Patients with CVD 25 (76%) 64 ± 8 24 × 30–60 min telephone coaching sessions over 12 weeks delivered in person;
In addition, coaches sent educational material via email and sent text messages to remind them to practice healthy lifestyle habits.
Health Coaching Planning; Motivation 3 months 3 months Physical Activity: Fitbit
Elkoustaf, 2019 [39] USA Patients with CVD 79 (57%) 66 ± 9 1 x groups introduction session;
18 x group sessions over 6 months;
1:1 individual coaching sessions, delivered via phone (unspecified number)
Wellness coaching Not stated 9 months 9 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Objective functional measurement
Fappa, 2012 [40] Greece Patients with Metabolic Syndrome 87 (42%) 49 ± 12 7 × 60-min counselling sessions over 6 months, delivered in person Goal setting theory Self-monitoring; Problem-solving techniques; Relapse prevention 6 months 6 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using Harokopio PA Questionnaire
Freedland, 2015 [41] USA Patients with CVD 158 (54%) 56 ± 11 1 × 60-min counselling sessions weekly for the first 6 months, delivered in person;
4 × 30-min counselling sessions in the final 6 months, delivered via phone
CBT Problem-solving; Goal setting 12 months 12 months Physical Activity: Objective functional measures
Gade, 2014 [42] Norway Patients who were morbidly obese 102 (68%) 43 ± 10 4 x individual counselling session over 10 weeks delivered in person;
6 x individual counselling session over 10 weeks delivered via telephone
CBT Psychoeducation; Homework; Self-monitoring; Relapse prevention 10 weeks 3 months Anthropometric: NS
Goedendorp, 2010 [43] Netherlands Patients with cancer undergoing curative treatment 240 (34%) 57 ± 11 10 × 60-min counselling sessions over 6 months, delivered in person CBT Restructuring of cognitions and beliefs; education;
Behavioural instructions
6 months 6 months Physical Activity: Actometer
Goodwin, 2014 [44] Canada & USA Overweight postmenopausal women 338 (0%) 61 ± 7 19 × 30-60 m coaching sessions over 2 years delivered via telephone Not stated Lifestyle coaching;
Motivation;
Relapse prevention;
Overcoming barriers
24 months 24 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using IPAQ
Harting, 2006 [45] Netherlands Patients with CVD risk 1270 (69%) 61 ± 9 6 × 30–45 min counselling sessions over 4 months, delivered in person Health Counselling based on
stage of behavioural change
Not stated 4 months 18 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using a ‘short validated survey’
Ijzelenberg, 2012 [46] Netherlands Patients with CVD 146 (77%) 60 ± 11 22 x group exercise sessions over 6 months;
3 x individual exercise sessions over 6 months;
7 x group counselling sessions over 6 months;
Individually counselling sessions over 6 months, delivered in person (unspecified number)
Lifestyle counselling Motivation; Goal setting; Stress management 6 months 6 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using the SQUASH survey
Kim, 2019 [47] Korea Women at risk of CVD 58 (0%) 57 ± 6 12 x individual counselling session over 3 months, delivered in person;
1 x education text message delivered weekly for 3 months
Theory of planned behaviour; Theory of self-regulation Education; goal setting, self-monitoring; feedback 3 months 3 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using the IPAQ
Kirk, 2004 [48] UK Inactive patients with T2DM 70 (50%) 58 ± 8 2 × 30-min individual counselling sessions over 9 months delivered in person;
4 x individual counselling sessions over 9 months delivered via telephone
Transtheoretical model Problem solving; Social
support; Goal setting
9 months 12 months Physical Activity: Self-reported
Kosaka, 2005 [49] Japan Men with IGT 458 (100%) NS 6 x individual counselling sessions over 12 months, delivered in person Not stated Education; Self-monitoring; Social support 12 months 48 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement.
Lear, 2003 [50] Canada Patients with CVD 302 (82%) 64 ± 9 6 x group exercise sessions over 12 months;
2 x lifestyle and risk-factor assessments;
6 x individual counselling sessions over 12 months, delivered in person
Counselling based on principles of behavioural change Feedback (outcomes); Counsel on lifestyle behaviours and risk
factors
12 months 12 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using MLTPA questionnaire.
Miura, 2004 [51] Japan Patients with HTN 57 (51%) 62 ± 10 6 x individual counselling sessions over 6 months, delivered in person Behaviour theory; Social cognitive theory Not stated 6 months 6 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Actigraph Accelerometer
O’Brien, 2018 [52] Australia Overweight patients with OA 120 (36%) 62 ± 12 1 x brief group education session;
10 x individual counselling session over 6-months, delivered in person
MI;
Self-regulation principles
Problem solving; Goal setting 6 months 6 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using AAS
Oldroyd, 2006 [53] UK Patients with IGT 78 (50%) 58 ± 10 12 × 15–20 min individual counselling sessions over 24 months, delivered in person Stages of change model of
behaviour change
MI techniques; Action planning; Goal setting 24 months 24 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using a ‘lifestyle questionnaire’
Rimmer, 2009 [54] USA Women with morbid obesity & mobility issues 92 (0%) 59 ± 11 1 x individual counselling sessions each week over 6 months, delivered in person;
Option to attend a monthly exercise support group.
Not stated Goal Setting;
Performance feedback; Overcoming barriers
6 months 6 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using a ‘lifestyle questionnaire’
Sone, 2010 [55] Japan Patients with T2DM 2033 (47%) 59 ± 7 1 x group education session;
2 × 15-min individual counselling session monthly over 96 months, delivered in person
Not stated Feedback on behaviour; Feedback on outcomes 96 months 96 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using a ‘lifestyle questionnaire’
Wattanakorn, 2013 [56] Thailand Patients with T2DM and obesity 76 (16%) 50 ± 8 4 × 30–45 min individual counselling sessions over 1 month, delivered in person MI;
Self-regulation theory.
Education; Goal setting; Discrepancy between current behaviour and goal 1 month 4 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using the Seven Day PA Recall survey
Williams, 2018 [57] Australia Overweight patients with chronic LBP 159 (41%) 57 ± 13 10 x individual counselling sessions over 6 months, delivered via telephone SDT; Setting graded tasks;
Setting specific behaviour goals;
Barrier identification
Prompting self-monitoring of behaviour and outcomes
6 months 6 months Anthropometric: Objective measurement;
Physical Activity: Self-reported using the AAS
  1. AAS Active Australia Survey, CBT Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, CVD Cardiovascular disease, HTN Hypertension, IGT Impaired Glucose Tolerance, IPAQ International Physical Activity Questionnaire, LMTPA Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity, MI Motivational Interviewing, NS Not stated, OA Osteoarthritis, PA Physical Activity, SDT Self-determination Theory, SQUASH Short QUestionnaire to ASsess Health enhancing physical activity, SR Self-reported, T2DM Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. aas described by the authors of the studies