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Table 3 Sensitivity and subgroup analyses

From: The effect of behaviour change interventions on changes in physical activity and anthropometrics in ambulatory hospital settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Characteristics No. of studies No. of participants (intervention/control) Mean change (95% confidence interval) p-value Heterogeneity
Physical activity
 Full analysis 13 1454 (729/725) 0.96 [0.45, 1.48] < 0.01 95%
 Excluding high risk of bias overall 5 677 (340/337) 1.04 [0.15, 1.92] 0.02 96%
 Objective measurement 4 224 (128/96) 1.52 [0.22, 2.81] 0.02 94%
 Self-reported measurement 9 1230 (601/629) 0.74 [0.17, 1.30] 0.01 95%
r = 0.5 13 1454 (729/725) 0.72 [0.32, 1.13] < 0.01 92%
r = 1.0 13 1454 (729/725) 1.86 [0.96, 2.76] < 0.01 98%
 Short-term intervention duration 4 235 (126/101) 2.08 [1.18, 2.97] < 0.01 86%
 Long-term intervention duration 9 1227 (603/624) 0.51 [0.00, 1.02] 0.05 94%
 Low intensity intervention 4 654 (337/317) 0.52 [−0.08, 1.12] 0.09 92%
 Medium intensity intervention 6 642 (313/329) 1.31 [0.35, 2.28] < 0.01 96%
 High intensity intervention 3 158 (79/79) 0.86 [−0.13, 1.85] 0.09 88%
 Obese subgroup 4 619 (250/269) 1.00 [0.04, 2.04] 0.06 96%
 CVD subgroup 5 675 (339/346) 0.19 [−0.07, 0.45] 0.15 61%
Body Mass (kg)
 Full analysis 9 872 (419/453) -2.74 [−4.42, −1.07] < 0.01 45%
 Excluding high risk of bias overall 3 253 (123/130) −2.59 [− 4.49, −0.68] < 0.01 2%
 Objective measurement 7 656 (321/336) − 2.25 [−4.16, −0.34] 0.02 48%
 Self-reported measurement 2 226 (98/117) −4.75 [−7.69, −1.81] < 0.01 0%
r = 0.5 9 872 (419/453) −2.43 [−4.18, −0.69] < 0.01 0%
r = 1.0 9 872 (419/453) −2.21 [−3.57, −0.84] < 0.01 98%
 Short-term intervention duration 2 134 (64/70) −3.56 [−5.91, −1.21] < 0.01 0%
 Long-term intervention duration 7 738 (355/383) −2.57 [−4.57, −0.38] 0.04 54%
 Low intensity intervention 1 135 (66/79) −5.46 [−9.91, −1.01] 0.02 NA
 Medium intensity intervention 5 411 (196/215) −2.14 [−3.80, −0.49] 0.01 0%
 High intensity intervention 3 316 (157/159) −3.82 [−8.26, 0.63] 0.09 78%
 Obese subgroup 4 520 (250/270) −2.85 [−6.27, 0.56] 0.10 68%
 CVD subgroup 2 215 (98/117) −4.75 [−7.69, −1.81] < 0.01 0%
 Diabetes/IGT subgroup 2 73 (39/34) −0.76 [−3.29, 1.77] 0.56 0%
BMI (kg/m2)
 Full analysis 15 4728 (2385/2343) −0.99 [−1.48, − 0.50] < 0.01 77%
 Excluding high risk of bias overall 4 531 (265/266) −0.57 [−1.20, 0.05] 0.07 37%
 Objective measurement 11 2198 (1126/1072) −0.99 [−1.52, − 0.47] < 0.01 55%
 Self-reported measurement 4 2530 (1259/1271) −0.97 [−2.24, 0.29] 0.13 80%
r = 0.5 15 4728 (2385/2343) −0.88 [−1.43, − 0.34] < 0.01 59%
r = 1.0 15 4728 (2385/2343) −1.38 [− 1.88, − 0.88] < 0.01 98%
 Short-term intervention duration 2 134 (64/70) −1.39 [−2.37, − 0.42] < 0.01 0%
 Long-term intervention duration 13 4594 (2321/2273) −0.93 [−1.47, − 0.39] < 0.01 80%
 Low intensity intervention 4 698 (349/349) −1.12 [−2.38, 0.15] 0.02 71%
 Medium intensity intervention 7 2569 (1275/1269) −0.56 [−1.17, 0.04] 0.07 39%
 High intensity intervention 4 1461 (761/700) −1.63 [−2.85, −0.42] < 0.01 72%
 Obese subgroup 3 277 (129/148) −2.08 [−5.56, 1.40] 0.24 82%
 CVD subgroup 2 139 (68/71) −1.88 [−3.04, −0.72] < 0.01 0%
 Diabetes/IGT subgroup 6 1725 (898/827) −0.99 [−1.19, − 0.79] < 0.01 0%
Waist Circumference (cm)
 Full analysis 5 530 (265/265) −2.21 [−4.01, −0.42] 0.02 41%
 Excluding high risk of bias overall 4 472 (236/236) −2.34 [− 4.49, −0.18] 0.03 45%
 Objective measurement 4 460 (233/227) −1.64 [−3.43, 0.15] 0.07 28%
 Self-reported measurement
r = 0.5 5 530 (265/265) −2.40 [−4.20, −0.59] 0.02 55%
r = 1.0 5 530 (265/265) −2.61 [−4.23, −0.99] < 0.01 99%
 Short-term intervention duration 2 134 (64/70) −3.68 [−6.05, −1.30] < 0.01 0%
 Long-term intervention duration 3 396 (201/195) −1.40 [−3.68, 0.88] 0.23 41%
 Low intensity intervention 1 278 (142/136) −0.90 [−2.71, 0.91] 0.33 NA
 Medium intensity intervention 4 252 (123/129) −2.87 [−5.04, −0.70] 0.01 32%
 High intensity intervention
 CVD subgroup 2 348 (174/174) −2.34 [−5.63, 0.96] 0.40 70%
 Diabetes/IGT subgroup 2 118 (59/59) −2.05 [−6.85, 2.75] 0.06 53%
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, CVD Cardiovascular Disease, IGT Impaired Glucose Tolerance, NA Not applicable