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Table 2 Summary Table for Included Studies - Toddlers (12–35.9mo; n = 20)

From: Infants’ and toddlers’ physical activity and sedentary time as measured by accelerometry: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors (Year) Study Design Sample Size, Mean Age (mo; SD), Range Average Wear-Time min/day (SD), Non-Wear Criteria Monitoring Time Accelerometer Type, Placement, Epoch Length Cut-Points Physical Activity min/day (SD) Sedentary Time min/day (SD) Study Quality
Australia (n = 4)
 Hnatiuk et al. (2012) [23] Cluster RCT N = 295 586.4 (65.1), ≥20 min of consecutive zeros Waking hours, 7 days ActiGraph GT1M, Waist, 15-s Trost et al. TPAΦ = 232.4 (34.1) NR 10
Age = 19.1 (2.3), NR
LPA = 184.5 (30.7)
MVPA = 47.9 (16.2)
 Hnatiuk et al. (2017) [47] Cross-sectional N = 136 658.6 (94.8), ≥20 min of consecutive zeros Waking hours, 7 days ActiGraph GT3X, Waist, 15-s Trost et al. TPA = 303.8 (53.9) NR 8
Age = 32.4 (10.2), 12–36
LPA = 228.4 (34.8)
MVPA = 75.4 (27.3)
 Oftedal et al. (2015) [48] Cohort N = 20 571 (72), Consecutive zeros matching accelerometer logged ‘device removal’ Waking hours, 3 days ActiGraph GT3X, Waist, 5-s Oftedal et al. NR 279.8 (28.6) Φ 9
Age = 26.4 (6.0), 18–36
 Santos et al. (2017) [24] RCT N = 202 1297.4 (93), Accelerometer logged ‘device removal’ (only full 24 h days included in analyses) 24 h, 7 days ActiGraph GT3X+, Waist, 15-s Trost et al. TPA = 295.0 (59.0) 262.8 (60.2) 10
Age = 19.7 (4.1), 12–28
LPA = 237.7 (44.2)
MVPA = 57.3 (21.4)
Canada (n = 4)
 Bisson et al. (2018) [44] Cohort N = 255 527.1 (174.0), ≥20 min of consecutive zeros Waking hours, 7 days ActiGraph GT3X, Waist, 15-s Trost et al. TPA = 223.3 (80.4) NR 10
Age = 25.2 (2.4), NR
 Borkhoff et al. (2015) [45] Cross-sectional N = 27 582 (48), ≥60 min of consecutive zeros 12 h, 7 days Actical, Waist, 2-s Adolph et al. TPA = 193.8 (63.7) 385.9 (52.4) 10
Age = 19.1 (5.3), 12–30
Wong et al. LPA = 185.1 (57)
MVPA = 8.7 (12)
 Lee et al. (2017) [29] Cross-sectional N = 151 618 (84), ≥20 min of consecutive zeros Waking hours, 7 days ActiGraph wGT3X-BT, Waist, 15-s Trost et al. TPA = 298.9 (40.9) 316.7 (40.6) 9
Age = 19 (1.9), 12–23 Pate et al.
LPA = 240.2 (29.3)
MVPA = 58.7 (18.7)
 Vanderloo et al. (2015) [46] Cross-sectional N = 40 606.8 (38.8), ≥60 min of consecutive zeros Waking hours, 7 days Actical, Waist, 15-s Trost et al. TPAΦ = 107.2 (33.3) 499.43 (33.3) Φ 10
Age = 25.7 (5.9), 18–29
LPAΦ = 99.0 (29.3)
MVPAΦ = 8.29 (7.3)
China (n = 1)
 Johansson et al. (2016) [28] Cross-sectional N = 79 NR - min 15 h to be valid, NR 15 h, 7 days ActiGraph GT3X, Wrist, 5-s Johansson et al. TPAΦ = 235 (83.2) 545.0 (99.0) 10
Age = 24.5 (1.6), NR
LPA = 195.0 (79.0)
MVPA = 40.0 (26.0)
Malawi (n = 1)
 Pulakka et al. (2017) [50] RCT N = 380 810, ≥20 min of consecutive zeros 15 h, 5 days ActiGraph GT3X+, Waist, 15-s Trost et al. MVPAΦ = 89.9 (28.4) 432.5 (66.4) Φ 10
Age = 18.1 (0.6), NR
Netherlands (n = 1)
 Wijtzes et al. (2013) [27] Cohort N = 347 488, ≥10 min of consecutive zeros 24 h, 1 weekday, 1 weekend day ActiGraph Am-7164, Waist, 15-s Sirard et al. TPAΦ = 72.9 (28.3) 415.1 (28.3) Φ 9
Age = 25.1 (1.1), NR
LPAΦ = 48.5 (16.1)
MVPAΦ = 24.4 (14.6)
New Zealand (n = 1)
 Taylor et al. (2018) [25] RCT N = 568 NR - min 20 h to be valid, ≥20 min of consecutive zeros 24 h, 7 days Actical, Waist, 15-s Pfeiffer et al. TPAΦ = 228.0 (61.4) 519.8 (62.0) δ 9
Ageδ = 16.7 (0.3), 12–35.9
Adolph et al. LPAδ = 221.5 (61.0)
Trost et al. MVPAδ = 6.5 (7.1)
Sweden (n = 1)
 Johansson et al. (2016) [28] Cross-sectional N = 146 NR - min 15 h to be valid, NR 15 h, 7 days ActiGraph GT3X, Wrist, 5-s Johansson et al. TPAΦ = 334.0 (40.2) 445.0 (68.0) 10
Age = 24.4 (1.2), NR
LPA = 261.0 (49.0)
MVPA = 73.0 (29.0)
Switzerland (n = 1)
 Herzig et al. (2017) [33] Cross-sectional N = 19 NR - min 10 h to be valid, ≥20 min of consecutive zeros 14 h, 8 days ActiGraph wGT3X, Waist, 30-s Butte et al. MVPA = 54.8 (NR) NR 8
Age = 33.6 (NR), 31.2–34.8
United States (n = 6)
 Armstrong et al. (2018) [36] Cross-sectional N = 195 NR - min 24 h to be valid, NR 24 h, 7 days Actical, Ankle, 60-s Hager et al. NR 172.7 (39.6) 10
Age = 20.3 (5.6), 12–32
 Dlugonski et al. (2017) [37] Cross-sectional N = 7 672.4 (74), Accelerometer logged ‘device removal’ Waking hours, 7 days ActiGraph GT3X, Waist, 60-s Trost et al. TPAΦ = 294.2 (64.9) NR 9
Age = NR, 12.0–35.9
LPA = 257.4 (61.3)
MVPA = 36.8 (21.3)
 Hager et al. (2016) [38] Cross-sectional N = 191 NR - min 24 h to be valid, NR 24 h, 7 days Actical, Ankle, 60-s Hager et al. TPAΦ = 636.5 (96.4) NR 9
Age = 20.1 (NR), 12–32
LPA = 582.4 (87.5)
MVPA = 54.1 (40.4)
 Hauck & Kim (2019) [41] Cross-sectional N = 35 503.8 (146.4)δ, ≥20 min of consecutive zeros At least 3 h, at least 3 days (avg. 6.0 monitoring days δ) ActiGraph GT3X Trost et al. NR 348.0 (95.3) δ 10
Age = NR, 18-24 Waist, 15-s
 Kwon et al. (2019) [42] Cross-sectional N = 19 499.0a (NR), Accelerometer logged ‘device removal’ and ≥ 20 min of consecutive zeros Waking hours, at least 4 days (1 weekend day) ActiGraph GT3X Trost et al. TPAΦ = 208.0 (30.0) NR 10
Age = NR, 12-35 Waist, 15-s
LPA = 161.0 (26.0)
MVPA = 47.0 (15.0)
 McCullough et al. (2018) [43] Cross-sectional N = 65 606 (78), ≥20 min of consecutive zeros Waking hours, 7 days ActiGraph, Waist, 15-s Trost et al. TPA = 293.7 (60.1) 312.6 (61.3) 10
Age = 29 (4), 24–35
LPAΦ = 232.4 (53.4)
MVPA = 61.3 (27.6)
Other - Europe (Multi-Country: Italy, Estonia, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Hungary, Spain; n = 1)
 Konstabel et al. (2014) [26] Cohort N = 131 740 (100), ≥20 min of consecutive zeros Waking hours, at least 3 days (1 weekend day) ActiGraph (GT1M, ActiTrainer), Waist, 15-s and 60-s Evenson et al. TPAδ = 435.8 (60.3) 239.2 (68.8) δ 9
Age = NR, 24–35.9
LPAδ = 411. 8 (58.9)
MVPAδ = 24.0 (13.1)
  1. RCT randomized control trial, mo months, TPA total physical activity, LPA light physical activity, MVPA moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity, NR not reported; ΦCalculation made to produce value; δWeighted mean produced; aMedian wear time