Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary Table for Included Studies - Toddlers (12–35.9mo; n = 20)

From: Infants’ and toddlers’ physical activity and sedentary time as measured by accelerometry: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors (Year)Study DesignSample Size, Mean Age (mo; SD), RangeAverage Wear-Time min/day (SD), Non-Wear CriteriaMonitoring TimeAccelerometer Type, Placement, Epoch LengthCut-PointsPhysical Activity min/day (SD)Sedentary Time min/day (SD)Study Quality
Australia (n = 4)
 Hnatiuk et al. (2012) [23]Cluster RCTN = 295586.4 (65.1), ≥20 min of consecutive zerosWaking hours, 7 daysActiGraph GT1M, Waist, 15-sTrost et al.TPAΦ = 232.4 (34.1)NR10
Age = 19.1 (2.3), NR
LPA = 184.5 (30.7)
MVPA = 47.9 (16.2)
 Hnatiuk et al. (2017) [47]Cross-sectionalN = 136658.6 (94.8), ≥20 min of consecutive zerosWaking hours, 7 daysActiGraph GT3X, Waist, 15-sTrost et al.TPA = 303.8 (53.9)NR8
Age = 32.4 (10.2), 12–36
LPA = 228.4 (34.8)
MVPA = 75.4 (27.3)
 Oftedal et al. (2015) [48]CohortN = 20571 (72), Consecutive zeros matching accelerometer logged ‘device removal’Waking hours, 3 daysActiGraph GT3X, Waist, 5-sOftedal et al.NR279.8 (28.6) Φ9
Age = 26.4 (6.0), 18–36
 Santos et al. (2017) [24]RCTN = 2021297.4 (93), Accelerometer logged ‘device removal’ (only full 24 h days included in analyses)24 h, 7 daysActiGraph GT3X+, Waist, 15-sTrost et al.TPA = 295.0 (59.0)262.8 (60.2)10
Age = 19.7 (4.1), 12–28
LPA = 237.7 (44.2)
MVPA = 57.3 (21.4)
Canada (n = 4)
 Bisson et al. (2018) [44]CohortN = 255527.1 (174.0), ≥20 min of consecutive zerosWaking hours, 7 daysActiGraph GT3X, Waist, 15-sTrost et al.TPA = 223.3 (80.4)NR10
Age = 25.2 (2.4), NR
 Borkhoff et al. (2015) [45]Cross-sectionalN = 27582 (48), ≥60 min of consecutive zeros12 h, 7 daysActical, Waist, 2-sAdolph et al.TPA = 193.8 (63.7)385.9 (52.4)10
Age = 19.1 (5.3), 12–30
Wong et al.LPA = 185.1 (57)
MVPA = 8.7 (12)
 Lee et al. (2017) [29]Cross-sectionalN = 151618 (84), ≥20 min of consecutive zerosWaking hours, 7 daysActiGraph wGT3X-BT, Waist, 15-sTrost et al.TPA = 298.9 (40.9)316.7 (40.6)9
Age = 19 (1.9), 12–23Pate et al.
LPA = 240.2 (29.3)
MVPA = 58.7 (18.7)
 Vanderloo et al. (2015) [46]Cross-sectionalN = 40606.8 (38.8), ≥60 min of consecutive zerosWaking hours, 7 daysActical, Waist, 15-sTrost et al.TPAΦ = 107.2 (33.3)499.43 (33.3) Φ10
Age = 25.7 (5.9), 18–29
LPAΦ = 99.0 (29.3)
MVPAΦ = 8.29 (7.3)
China (n = 1)
 Johansson et al. (2016) [28]Cross-sectionalN = 79NR - min 15 h to be valid, NR15 h, 7 daysActiGraph GT3X, Wrist, 5-sJohansson et al.TPAΦ = 235 (83.2)545.0 (99.0)10
Age = 24.5 (1.6), NR
LPA = 195.0 (79.0)
MVPA = 40.0 (26.0)
Malawi (n = 1)
 Pulakka et al. (2017) [50]RCTN = 380810, ≥20 min of consecutive zeros15 h, 5 daysActiGraph GT3X+, Waist, 15-sTrost et al.MVPAΦ = 89.9 (28.4)432.5 (66.4) Φ10
Age = 18.1 (0.6), NR
Netherlands (n = 1)
 Wijtzes et al. (2013) [27]CohortN = 347488, ≥10 min of consecutive zeros24 h, 1 weekday, 1 weekend dayActiGraph Am-7164, Waist, 15-sSirard et al.TPAΦ = 72.9 (28.3)415.1 (28.3) Φ9
Age = 25.1 (1.1), NR
LPAΦ = 48.5 (16.1)
MVPAΦ = 24.4 (14.6)
New Zealand (n = 1)
 Taylor et al. (2018) [25]RCTN = 568NR - min 20 h to be valid, ≥20 min of consecutive zeros24 h, 7 daysActical, Waist, 15-sPfeiffer et al.TPAΦ = 228.0 (61.4)519.8 (62.0) δ9
Ageδ = 16.7 (0.3), 12–35.9
Adolph et al.LPAδ = 221.5 (61.0)
Trost et al.MVPAδ = 6.5 (7.1)
Sweden (n = 1)
 Johansson et al. (2016) [28]Cross-sectionalN = 146NR - min 15 h to be valid, NR15 h, 7 daysActiGraph GT3X, Wrist, 5-sJohansson et al.TPAΦ = 334.0 (40.2)445.0 (68.0)10
Age = 24.4 (1.2), NR
LPA = 261.0 (49.0)
MVPA = 73.0 (29.0)
Switzerland (n = 1)
 Herzig et al. (2017) [33]Cross-sectionalN = 19NR - min 10 h to be valid, ≥20 min of consecutive zeros14 h, 8 daysActiGraph wGT3X, Waist, 30-sButte et al.MVPA = 54.8 (NR)NR8
Age = 33.6 (NR), 31.2–34.8
United States (n = 6)
 Armstrong et al. (2018) [36]Cross-sectionalN = 195NR - min 24 h to be valid, NR24 h, 7 daysActical, Ankle, 60-sHager et al.NR172.7 (39.6)10
Age = 20.3 (5.6), 12–32
 Dlugonski et al. (2017) [37]Cross-sectionalN = 7672.4 (74), Accelerometer logged ‘device removal’Waking hours, 7 daysActiGraph GT3X, Waist, 60-sTrost et al.TPAΦ = 294.2 (64.9)NR9
Age = NR, 12.0–35.9
LPA = 257.4 (61.3)
MVPA = 36.8 (21.3)
 Hager et al. (2016) [38]Cross-sectionalN = 191NR - min 24 h to be valid, NR24 h, 7 daysActical, Ankle, 60-sHager et al.TPAΦ = 636.5 (96.4)NR9
Age = 20.1 (NR), 12–32
LPA = 582.4 (87.5)
MVPA = 54.1 (40.4)
 Hauck & Kim (2019) [41]Cross-sectionalN = 35503.8 (146.4)δ, ≥20 min of consecutive zerosAt least 3 h, at least 3 days (avg. 6.0 monitoring days δ)ActiGraph GT3XTrost et al.NR348.0 (95.3) δ10
Age = NR, 18-24Waist, 15-s
 Kwon et al. (2019) [42]Cross-sectionalN = 19499.0a (NR), Accelerometer logged ‘device removal’ and ≥ 20 min of consecutive zerosWaking hours, at least 4 days (1 weekend day)ActiGraph GT3XTrost et al.TPAΦ = 208.0 (30.0)NR10
Age = NR, 12-35Waist, 15-s
LPA = 161.0 (26.0)
MVPA = 47.0 (15.0)
 McCullough et al. (2018) [43]Cross-sectionalN = 65606 (78), ≥20 min of consecutive zerosWaking hours, 7 daysActiGraph, Waist, 15-sTrost et al.TPA = 293.7 (60.1)312.6 (61.3)10
Age = 29 (4), 24–35
LPAΦ = 232.4 (53.4)
MVPA = 61.3 (27.6)
Other - Europe (Multi-Country: Italy, Estonia, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Hungary, Spain; n = 1)
 Konstabel et al. (2014) [26]CohortN = 131740 (100), ≥20 min of consecutive zerosWaking hours, at least 3 days (1 weekend day)ActiGraph (GT1M, ActiTrainer), Waist, 15-s and 60-sEvenson et al.TPAδ = 435.8 (60.3)239.2 (68.8) δ9
Age = NR, 24–35.9
LPAδ = 411. 8 (58.9)
MVPAδ = 24.0 (13.1)
  1. RCT randomized control trial, mo months, TPA total physical activity, LPA light physical activity, MVPA moderate-to vigorous-intensity physical activity, NR not reported; ΦCalculation made to produce value; δWeighted mean produced; aMedian wear time