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Table 2 Overview of results: subjective and objective sleep outcomes from different studies (studies are ordered from highest to lowest number of significant sleep outcomes)

From: Effects of physical activity programs on sleep outcomes in older adults: a systematic review

 Chen et al. (2012) [75]Chen et al. (2010) [73]Chen et al. (2009) [72]Frye, et al. (2007) [70]Hosseini et al. (2011) [74]Nguyen and Kruse (2012) [76]Stevenson and Topp (1990) [68]Chan and Chen (2016) [80]Naylor et al. (2000) [69]Curi et al. (2018) [81]Melancon et al. (2015) [79]Chen and Tseng (2008) [71]Hariprasad et al. (2013) [78]Oudegeest-Sander et al. (2013) [77]#significant improved /#reported outcome
Program characteristics
− frequency
− intensity
− time
− duration
− type
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 30 min
− 12 weeks
− Baduanjin
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 70 min
− 6 months
− silver yoga exercises
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 70 min
− 6 months
− silver yoga exercises
− 3*/week
− low-to-moderate
− 60 min
− 12 weeks
− tai chi, low impact exercises
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 20-25 min
− 12 weeks
− Tai chi 
− 2*/week
− moderate
− 60 min
− 6 months
− Tai chi
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 55-60 min
− 6 months
− stretching, cycling, slow walking
− *3/week
− low
− 40 min
− 6 months
− elastic band exercises
−1*/day
− low
− 45 min
− 2 weeks
− stretching, cooling down
− 1*/week
− moderate
− 60 min
− 16 weeks
− Pilates
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 45-60 min
− 16 weeks
− brisk walking
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 70 min
− 4 weeks
− silver yoga exercises
− 1*/day
− moderate
− 60 min
− 6 months
− yoga
− 3*/week
−vigorous
− 45 min
− 12 months
− cycling
Measures of sleep, effect size and study quality
(s)ubjective or (o)bjectivessssssssoss/osso
effect size*1.551.010.860.35 (group 1) – 0.52 (group 2)0.441.52n0.34n0.440.48n0.55n
study qualitystrongstrongstrongstrongmoderatestrongstrongmoderatemoderatestrongmoderatemoderatestrongstrong
Sleep outcomes
difficulties falling back to sleep      x*       1*/1 (100%)
NREM sleep          x*   1*/1 (100%)
subjective sleep quantity      x*       1*/1 (100%)
PSQI total scorex*x*x* x*x* x* x*xxx* 8*/10 (80%)
sleep latencyx* x*   x*x*xx*xxxx5*/10 (50%)
sleep disturbancesx*x* x*   x xxx*x 4*/8 (50%)
wake time after sleep onset        x x*   1*/2 (50%)
slow wave sleep        x* x   1*/2 (50%)
stage 2 sleep        x* x   1*/2 (50%)
total sleep time        x*    x1*/2 (50%)
daytime dysfunctionx*x*x*    x x xx 3*/7 (43%)
sleep durationx*x*     x* xxxx 3*/7 (43%)
sleep medicationx*      x x* xx 2*/5 (40%)
sleep efficiencyx*x*     x* xxxxx3*/8 (38%)
sleep qualityx* x*   xxxx xx 2*/8 (25%)
awakenings             x0*/1 (0%)
#significant improved /#reported outcome8*/8 (100%)5*/5 (100%)4*/4 (100%)1*/1 (100%)1*/1 (100%)1*/1 (100%)3*/4 (75%)4*/8 (50%)3*/6 (50%)3*/8 (38%)2*/9 (22%)1*/8 (13%)1*/8 (13%)0*/4 (0%) 
  1. Effect size underlined: Cohen’s d effect size > 80 = substantial; n = data to calculate effect size not available;
  2. *Effect sizes are based on the main reported outcome in the individual study; these are indicated in bold in the table;
  3. Sleep outcomes: x = measured outcome; x* = significant improved measure; no negative outcomes were reported;
  4. NREM Non-rapid eye movement sleep; PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index