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Table 2 Overview of results: subjective and objective sleep outcomes from different studies (studies are ordered from highest to lowest number of significant sleep outcomes)

From: Effects of physical activity programs on sleep outcomes in older adults: a systematic review

  Chen et al. (2012) [75] Chen et al. (2010) [73] Chen et al. (2009) [72] Frye, et al. (2007) [70] Hosseini et al. (2011) [74] Nguyen and Kruse (2012) [76] Stevenson and Topp (1990) [68] Chan and Chen (2016) [80] Naylor et al. (2000) [69] Curi et al. (2018) [81] Melancon et al. (2015) [79] Chen and Tseng (2008) [71] Hariprasad et al. (2013) [78] Oudegeest-Sander et al. (2013) [77] #significant improved /#reported outcome
Program characteristics
− frequency
− intensity
− time
− duration
− type
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 30 min
− 12 weeks
− Baduanjin
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 70 min
− 6 months
− silver yoga exercises
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 70 min
− 6 months
− silver yoga exercises
− 3*/week
− low-to-moderate
− 60 min
− 12 weeks
− tai chi, low impact exercises
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 20-25 min
− 12 weeks
− Tai chi 
− 2*/week
− moderate
− 60 min
− 6 months
− Tai chi
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 55-60 min
− 6 months
− stretching, cycling, slow walking
− *3/week
− low
− 40 min
− 6 months
− elastic band exercises
−1*/day
− low
− 45 min
− 2 weeks
− stretching, cooling down
− 1*/week
− moderate
− 60 min
− 16 weeks
− Pilates
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 45-60 min
− 16 weeks
− brisk walking
− 3*/week
− moderate
− 70 min
− 4 weeks
− silver yoga exercises
− 1*/day
− moderate
− 60 min
− 6 months
− yoga
− 3*/week
−vigorous
− 45 min
− 12 months
− cycling
Measures of sleep, effect size and study quality
(s)ubjective or (o)bjective s s s s s s s s o s s/o s s o
effect size* 1.55 1.01 0.86 0.35 (group 1) – 0.52 (group 2) 0.44 1.52 n 0.34 n 0.44 0.48 n 0.55 n
study quality strong strong strong strong moderate strong strong moderate moderate strong moderate moderate strong strong
Sleep outcomes
difficulties falling back to sleep        x*         1*/1 (100%)
NREM sleep            x*     1*/1 (100%)
subjective sleep quantity        x*         1*/1 (100%)
PSQI total score x* x* x*   x* x*   x*   x* x x x*   8*/10 (80%)
sleep latency x*   x*     x* x* x x* x x x x 5*/10 (50%)
sleep disturbances x* x*   x*     x   x x x* x   4*/8 (50%)
wake time after sleep onset          x   x*     1*/2 (50%)
slow wave sleep          x*   x     1*/2 (50%)
stage 2 sleep          x*   x     1*/2 (50%)
total sleep time          x*      x 1*/2 (50%)
daytime dysfunction x* x* x*      x   x   x x   3*/7 (43%)
sleep duration x* x*       x*   x x x x   3*/7 (43%)
sleep medication x*        x   x*   x x   2*/5 (40%)
sleep efficiency x* x*       x*   x x x x x 3*/8 (38%)
sleep quality x*   x*     x x x x   x x   2*/8 (25%)
awakenings               x 0*/1 (0%)
#significant improved /#reported outcome 8*/8 (100%) 5*/5 (100%) 4*/4 (100%) 1*/1 (100%) 1*/1 (100%) 1*/1 (100%) 3*/4 (75%) 4*/8 (50%) 3*/6 (50%) 3*/8 (38%) 2*/9 (22%) 1*/8 (13%) 1*/8 (13%) 0*/4 (0%)  
  1. Effect size underlined: Cohen’s d effect size > 80 = substantial; n = data to calculate effect size not available;
  2. *Effect sizes are based on the main reported outcome in the individual study; these are indicated in bold in the table;
  3. Sleep outcomes: x = measured outcome; x* = significant improved measure; no negative outcomes were reported;
  4. NREM Non-rapid eye movement sleep; PSQI Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index