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Table 3 Consumers’ Perceptions of the FoodFlip© App Usability and Functionality

From: A randomized controlled trial examining consumers’ perceptions and opinions on using different versions of a FoodFlip© smartphone application for delivery of nutrition information

7-point Likert-scale statements X2 exp (B) 95% Confidence Interval p-value
Lower Upper
Usability1
 The product search feature was easy to use 0.58     0.90
 I liked the barcode scanner feature 2.74     0.43
 Overall, I found the app easy to use 4.17     0.24
 I found the app confusing 2.25     0.52
Functionality2
 The app provided me with information that I can use 18.12     0.00
  Traffic Light   1.06 0.83 1.35 0.65
  ‘High in’ Warning   1.02 0.80 1.30 0.89
  Star Ratings   0.67 0.52 0.85 0.00
  Control (NFt)   1.00 . . .
 I found the app to be believable 21.51     0.00
  Traffic Light   0.90 0.71 1.16 0.42
  ‘High in’ Warning   0.93 0.73 1.19 0.56
  Star Ratings   0.59 0.46 0.75 0.00
  Control (NFt)   1.00 . . .
 Using the app helped me understand the nutrient levels in the food 34.75     0.00
  Traffic Light   1.07 0.84 1.37 0.58
  ‘High in’ Warning   0.78 0.61 1.00 0.05
  Star Ratings   0.55 0.44 0.71 0.00
  Control (NFt)   1.00 . . .
 Using the app helped me to compare the healthiness between similar products 19.78     0.00
  Traffic Light   1.67 1.30 2.13 0.00
  ‘High in’ Warning   1.49 1.17 1.91 0.00
  Star Ratings   1.20 0.94 1.53 0.14
  Control (NFt)   1.00 . . .
  1. Data analyzed using Ordinal Logistic Regression to assess for associations of the INRS systems with the 7-point Likert scale responses, controlling for the following covariates: gender, ethnicity, BMI, education, income, age, health literacy score. The 7-point Likert scale responses (1 = completely disagree, 7 = completely agree) of the pre-defined set of app-related statements (n = 8) were treated as ordinal dependent variables whereas the INRS system was treated as the categorical independent variables. 1Usability was defined as the ‘quality of user interface’ which assesses the user satisfaction and user engagement with the app and 2Functionality was defined as the operability of the app according to its purpose or design for the study’s objective, measuring the user evaluation of comparing the nutritional information of products. p < 0.01 was considered statistically significant