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Table 2 Association between energy-adjusted ultra-processed food consumption (daily serving) and cardiovascular mortality

From: Association of ultra-processed food consumption with cardiovascular mortality in the US population: long-term results from a large prospective multicenter study

Causes of mortality Quintiles of energy-adjusted ultra-processed food consumption, range (mean), servings/day Ptrend
< 0.5 (0.1) 0.5–< 1.1 (0.8) 1.1–< 2.1 (1.6) 2.1–≤4.0 (3.0) > 4.0 (8.2)
No. of participants 18,378 18,378 18,379 18,377 18,379  
Person-years 247,441.39 247,018.70 247,436.48 247,501.44 246,651.21  
Cardiovascular disease
 No. of deaths 991 1006 1002 1135 1356  
 Death rate a 40.05 40.73 40.50 45.86 54.98  
 Model 1 b 1.00 (reference) 1.01 (0.93, 1.11) 1.01 (0.93, 1.11) 1.24 (1.14, 1.35) 1.62 (1.49, 1.76) < 0.001
 Model 2 c 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (0.91, 1.09) 1.01 (0.92, 1.11) 1.20 (1.09, 1.31) 1.50 (1.36, 1.64) < 0.001
Heart disease
 No. of deaths 670 689 683 846 1097  
 Death rate a 27.08 27.89 27.60 34.18 44.48  
 Model 1 b 1.00 (reference) 1.02 (0.92, 1.14) 1.01 (0.91, 1.13) 1.34 (1.20, 1.48) 1.87 (1.69, 2.06) < 0.001
 Model 2 c 1.00 (reference) 1.01 (0.90, 1.12) 0.99 (0.89, 1.11) 1.26 (1.13, 1.41) 1.68 (1.50, 1.87) < 0.001
Cerebrovascular disease
 No. of deaths 256 236 246 212 176  
 Death rate a 10.35 9.55 9.94 8.57 7.14  
 Model 1 b 1.00 (reference) 0.93 (0.77, 1.11) 0.99 (0.83, 1.19) 0.95 (0.79, 1.15) 0.90 (0.74, 1.10) 0.406
 Model 2 c 1.00 (reference) 0.91 (0.76, 1.10) 1.04 (0.86, 1.25) 1.00 (0.82, 1.21) 0.94 (0.76, 1.17) 0.741
  1. Values are hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals)
  2. a Crude death rate per 10,000 person-years
  3. b Adjusted for age (years), sex (male, female), race (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, others), educational level (college below, college graduate, postgraduate), marital status (married, widowed, divorced, separated, never married), and study center (10 categories)
  4. c Adjusted for model 1 plus aspirin use (yes, no), history of hypertension (yes, no), history of diabetes (yes, no), smoking status (current, former, never), alcohol consumption (g/day), body mass index (< 18.5, 18.5–24.9, 25.0–30.0, > 30.0 kg/m2), physical activity (min/week), and energy intake from diet (kcal/day)