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Table 3 Effects of the Texas Sprouts intervention compared to Control on clinical and dietary outcomes

From: School-based gardening, cooking and nutrition intervention increased vegetable intake but did not reduce BMI: Texas sprouts - a cluster randomized controlled trial

Outcomes* Intervention (n = 8 schools)
CCA n = 1212
MI n = 1412
Control (n = 8 schools)
CCA n = 1509
MI n = 1723
Intervention Effect
P-value
Pre Change Pre Change  
Mean (SE)* Mean (SE)* Mean (SE)* Mean (SE)*
Height (cm)
 CCA 138.24(0.69) 4.12(0.11) 137.52(0.63) 3.71(0.11) 0.07
 MI 138.22(0.64) 4.12(0.11) 137.46(0.59) 3.71(0.10) 0.06
Weight (kg)
 CCA 38.89(0.99) 3.02(0.22) 38.57(0.89) 2.82(0.17) 0.32
 MI 38.87(0.91) 3.03(0.21) 38.61(0.84) 2.83(0.16) 0.28
BMI (kg/m2)
 CCA 20.03(0.05) −0.33(0.09) 20.05(0.33) −0.35(0.08) 0.84
 MI 20.03(0.35) 0.33(0.09) 20.08(0.31) 0.35(0.07) 0.87
BMI z-score
 CCA 0.78(0.09) 0.05(0.03) 0.81(0.08) 0.03(0.02) 0.36
 MI 0.77(0.09) −0.04(0.03) 0.81(0.08) −0.02(0.02) 0.51
BMI Percentile
 CCA 70.11(2.34) 1.20(0.70) 70.98(2.13) 0.60(0.65) 0.39
 MI 69.99(2.18) −0.82(0.70) 71.05(1.99) −0.39(0.64) 0.53
Waist Circumference (cm)
 CCA 71.34(1.02) 1.10(0.31) 70.62(0.90) 1.50(0.27) 0.31
 MI 71.29(0.95) 1.16(0.29) 70.67(0.86) 1.53(0.25) 0.34
Percentage Body Fat
 CCA 25.91(0.73) −0.33(0.22) 26.09(0.64) −0.51(0.19) 0.47
 MI 25.87(0.68) −0.34(0.21) 26.10(0.60) −0.49(0.18) 0.40
Systolic BP (Hg/mm)
 CCA 104.07(0.97) −0.31(0.93) 102.74(0.86) 0.02(0.89) 0.81
 MI 104.10(0.91) −0.39(0.90) 102.54(0.80) 0.20(0.85) 0.64
Diastolic BP (Hg/mm)
 CCA 68.53(0.81) −1.20(0.88) 66.21(0.70) 0.22(0.80) 0.28
 MI 68.64(0.77) −1.33(0.84) 66.10(0.65) 0.32(0.76) 0.18
Vegetable intake (freq/d)
 CCA 2.74(0.23) 0.46(0.25) 2.94(0.22) 0.03(0.23) 0.02
 MI 2.01(0.12) 0.33(0.13) 2.11(0.11) 0.03(0.11) 0.002
Fruit intake (freq/d)
 CCA 1.27(0.08) 0.15(0.11) 1.22(0.08) 0.13(0.09) 0.77
 MI 1.28(0.08) 0.15(0.10) 1.23(0.07) 0.13(0.09) 0.80
SSB (freq/d)
 CCA 0.58(0.06) 0.01(0.08) 0.61(0.06) 0.09(0.08) 0.15
 MI 0.57(0.06) 0.05(0.08) 0.62(0.06) 0.11(0.07) 0.24
  1. CCA complete case analyses; MI multiple imputation; BMI body mass index; BP blood pressure; Freq/d frequency per day; SSB sugar sweetened beverages
  2. *Weighted mean and standard error (SE) of each variable. Weighted refers to the total number of children within each school. Generalized weighted linear mixed models (GLMM) assessed differences between intervention and control groups