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Table 3 Mixed-effects negative binomial regression results for the total number of people. Models adjusted for day, time of day and precipitation

From: A natural experimental study of improvements along an urban canal: impact on canal usage, physical activity and other wellbeing behaviours

Time point Total number of people
(median per observation period)
Model results at each follow-up
Intervention group Comparison group Total number of observation periods in model IRR 95% CI Robust standard error p-value Random effect variance (site)
Baseline 51 (4) 65 (2)
7 months 148 (13.5) 117 (5) 72 1.67 1.44–1.95 0.13 <  0.001* 5.16e-34
12 months a 142 (11.5) 88 (3) 72 2.10 1.79–2.48 0.17 <  0.001* 8.75e-34
24 months 154 (13.5) 99 (4) 70 b 2.42 1.80–3.24 0.36 <  0.001* 5.76e-33
  1. CI confidence interval, IRR incidence rate ratio
  2. a Primary outcome; b Two observation periods were cancelled at the intervention site due to ethical concerns regarding observer safety
  3. *Statistically significant at p <  0.05 (z-test, two-tailed)