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Table 4 Mann-Whitney U test results for all physical activity levels and other wellbeing behaviours

From: A natural experimental study of improvements along an urban canal: impact on canal usage, physical activity and other wellbeing behaviours

Outcome Intervention group Comparison group Effect (difference between the change in the two groups) p-value a
Number of observation periods, n Total count Median (IQR) Change in median (from baseline) Number of observation periods, n Total count Median (IQR) Change in median (from baseline)
Walking (secondary) Baseline 12 48 4 (1.75) 24 64 2 (1.75)
7 months 12 135 12.5 (8.5) 8.5 24 116 5 (3) 3 5.5 .005*
12 months 12 140 11.5 (10) 7.5 24 88 3 (3) 1 6.5 <  0.001*
24 months 10 b 141 12 (9.5) 8 24 98 4 (3.75) 2 6 <  0.001*
Vigorous (secondary) Baseline 12 3 0 (0.75) 24 1 0 (0)
7 months 12 13 0.5 (2) 0.5 24 1 0 (0) 0 0.5 .009*
12 months 12 7 0 (0.75) 0 24 1 0 (0) 0 0 .96
24 months 10 b 13 1 (2.25) 1 24 0 0 (0) 0 1 .002*
Sedentary (exploratory) Baseline 12 2 0 (0) 24 4 0 (0)
7 months 12 24 1.5 (4) 1.5 24 17 0 (1) 0 1.5 .07
12 months 12 31 2 (1) 2 24 9 0 (0.75) 0 2 <  0.001*
24 months 10 b 24 2.5 (2.25) 2.5 24 8 0 (0) 0 2.5 <  0.001*
Connect (exploratory) Baseline 12 17 1.5 (2) 24 24 0.5 (2)
7 months 12 49 4 (5.25) 2.5 24 41 2 (2) 1.5 1 .42
12 months 12 40 3 (5.75) 1.5 24 21 0 (2) −0.5 2 .03*
24 months 10 b 49 3.5 (5.25) 2 24 25 0 (2) −0.5 2.5 .006*
Take Notice (exploratory) Baseline 12 3 0 (0.75) 24 5 0 (0)
7 months 12 11 1 (1.75) 1 24 6 0 (0.75) 0 1 .07
12 months 12 8 0 (1) 0 24 7 0 (0) 0 0 .58
24 months 10 b 15 1.5 (1) 1.5 24 3 0 (0) 0 1.5 .001*
  1. IQR interquartile range
  2. a Mann-Whitney U tests were carried out to determine if there were significant differences in the change in counts of behaviours from baseline to each follow-up between intervention and comparison groups; b Two observation periods were cancelled at the intervention site due to ethical concerns regarding observer safety
  3. * Statistically significant at p < 0.05 (z-test, two-tailed)