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Table 2 Association between extended ICH score and cardiovascular health outcomes at age 5–6 years

From: Ideal cardiovascular health at age 5–6 years and cardiometabolic outcomes in preadolescence

   Ideal Cardiovascular Health Scorea  
All 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 P for trend
N, % 1666 2 (0.1) 15 (0.9) 35 (2.1) 136 (8.2) 355 (21.3) 579 (34.8) 527 (31.6) 17 (1.0)  
Age at first measurement (years), mean (SD) 5.7 (0.4) 5.5 (0.2) 5.8 (0.5) 5.8 (0.4) 5.7 (0.4) 5.6 (0.4) 5.6 (0.4) 5.6 (0.4) 5.7 (0.5) 0.360
Male gender, n (%) 846 (50.8) 0 (0.0) 3 (20.0) 21 (60.0) 77 (56.6) 188 (53.0) 283 (48.9) 263 (49.9) 11 (64.7) 0.055
Ideal health factors at age 5/6 years
 Glucose (mmol/L), mean (SE) 4.6 (0.0) 4.6 (0.3) 4.8 (0.1) 4.9 (0.1) 4.7 (0.0) 4.6 (0.0) 4.6 (0.0) 4.5 (0.0) 4.4 (0.1) < 0.001
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L), mean (SE) 4.0 (0.0) 5.4 (0.4) 4.4 (0.2) 4.3 (0.1) 4.2 (0.1) 4.3 (0.0) 4.1 (0.0) 3.7 (0.0) 3.6 (0.2) < 0.001
 Systolic BP (mmHg) mean (SE) 97.2 (0.2) 98.4 (5.5) 105.7 (2.0) 103.7 (1.3) 101.1 (0.7) 98.4 (0.4) 96.8 (0.3) 95.3 (0.3) 92.7 (1.9) < 0.001
 Diastolic BP (mmHg), mean (SE) 57.4 (0.2) 64.3 (5.0) 66.2 (1.8) 64.2 (1.2) 60.0 (0.6) 58.5 (0.4) 57.1 (0.3) 55.5 (0.3) 56.6 (1.7) < 0.001
 HDL-C (mmol/L), mean (SE) 1.3 (0.0) 1.4 (0.2) 1.4 (0.1) 1.4 (0.0) 1.3 (0.0) 1.3 (0.0) 1.3 (0.0) 1.2 (0.0) 1.3 (0.1) < 0.001
 Triglycerides (mmol/L), mean (SE) 0.6 (0.0) 0.8 (0.2) 0.7 (0.1) 0.8 (0.0) 0.7 (0.0) 0.6 (0.0) 0.6 (0.0) 0.6 (0.0) 0.6 (0.0) < 0.001
Ideal health behaviors 5/6y
 BMI, mean (SE) 15.4 (0.0) 18.9 (0.9) 17.9 (0.3) 17.3 (0.2) 16.1 (0.1) 15.6 (0.1) 15.3 (0.1) 15.1 (0.1) 15.3 (0.3) < 0.001
 Ideal smoking status, n (%) 1537 (92.3) 0 (0.0) 8 (53.3) 23 (65.7) 107 (78.7) 304 (85.6) 554 (95.7) 524 (99.4) 17 (100.0) < 0.001
 Ideal healthy diet score, n (%) 33 (2.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.5) 13 (2.5) 17 (100.0) < 0.001
 Ideal physical activity, n (%) 1469 (88.2) 1 (50.0) 7 (46.7) 21 (60.0) 90 (66.2) 286 (80.6) 521 (90.0) 526 (99.8) 17 (100.0) < 0.001
 Ideal screen time, n (%) 1339 (80.4) 0 (0.0) 4 (26.7) 8 (22.9) 49 (36.0) 228 (64.2) 506 (87.4) 527 (100.0) 17 (100.0) < 0.001
 Ideal sleep behavior, n (%) 1356 (81.4) 0 (0.0) 2 (13.3) 14 (40.0) 60 (44.1) 244 (68.7) 493 (85.1) 526 (99.8) 17 (100.0) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: ICH ideal cardiovascular health, N number, SD standard deviation, SE standard error, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Results are adjusted for age and sex
  2. aThere were no children with 0 or 1 ICH point