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Table 3 Association between extended ICH score at age 5–6 years and cardiovascular health outcomes at age 11–12 years

From: Ideal cardiovascular health at age 5–6 years and cardiometabolic outcomes in preadolescence

  Ideal Cardiovascular Health Scorea
All 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 P for trend
N, % 559 2 (0.4) 4 (0.7) 6 (1.1) 38 (6.8) 119 (21.3) 198 (35.4) 187 (33.5) 5 (0.9)  
Age at first measurement (years), mean (SD) 5.7 (0.4) 5.5 (0.2) 5.7 (0.4) 5.7 (0.5) 5.8 (0.5) 5.7 (0.4) 5.7 (0.5) 5.7 (0.4) 5.6 (0.5) 0.943
Age at follow up (years), mean (SD) 11.8 (0.4) 12.1 (0.3) 11.4 (0.2) 12.0 (0.4) 11.9 (0.3) 11.7 (0.4) 11.8 (0.4) 11.8 (0.3) 11.5 (0.3) 0.011
Maturation, mean (SD) 1.5 (0.5) 1.5 (0.1) 2.1 (1.1) 1.7 (0.8) 1.6 (0.5) 1.5 (0.6) 1.5 (0.6) 1.4 (0.4) 1.3 (0.5) 0.107
Cardiovascular health 11/12y
 Glucose (mmol/L), mean (SE) 4.9 (0.0) 4.5 (0.4) 4.6 (0.3) 4.8 (0.2) 5.2 (0.1) 4.9 (0.1) 4.9 (0.0) 4.9 (0.0) 4.6 (0.3) 0.920
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L), mean (SE) 4.1 (0.0) 5.0 (0.4) 4.5 (0.3) 4.1 (0.3) 4.1 (0.1) 4.3 (0.1) 4.1 (0.0) 3.9 (0.0) 3.5 (0.3) < 0.001
 Systolic BP (mmHg), mean (SE) 105.2 (0.4) 110.8 (5.8) 110.6 (4.1) 113.0 (3.7) 106.8 (1.4) 105.2 (0.8) 105.1 (0.6) 104.2 (0.6) 109.3 (3.7) 0.012
 Diastolic BP (mmHg), mean (SE) 60.1 (0.3) 64.4 (4.6) 63.2 (3.2) 68.9 (2.9) 60.6 (1.1) 60.5 (0.6) 60.1 (0.5) 59.1 (0.5) 66.5 (2.9) 0.011
 HDL-C (mmol/L), mean (SE) 1.5 (0.0) 1.4 (0.2) 1.5 (0.2) 1.4 (0.1) 1.5 (0.1) 1.5 (0.0) 1.5 (0.0) 1.5 (0.0) 1.0 (0.2) 0.309
 Triglyceriden (mmol/L), mean (SE) 1.0 (0.0) 1.0 (0.4) 0.8 (0.3) 1.2 (0.2) 1.1 (0.1) 1.0 (0.1) 0.9 (0.0) 1.0 (0.0) 0.5 (0.4) 0.468
 BMI, mean (SE) 17.6 (0.1) 20.3 (1.6) 20.2 (1.1) 22.1 (1.0) 18.2 (0.4) 18.4 (0.2) 17.2 (0.2) 17.2 (0.2) 17.1 (1.0) < 0.001
CIMT (mm), mean (SE) 0.462 (0.001) 0.445 (0.020) 0.485 (0.015) 0.429 (0.020) 0.455 (0.006) 0.458 (0.003) 0.462 (0.002) 0.464 (0.002) 0.457 (0.013) 0.123
  1. Abbreviations: N number, SD standard deviation, SE standard error, BP blood pressure, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, BMI body mass index, CIMT carotid intima-media thickness
  2. Results are adjusted for age, sex and maturation. aThere were no children with 0 or 1 ICH point.