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Table 2 Sample sizes, cadences, heart rate (HR), % heart rate maximum (HRmax), % heart rate reserve (HRR), and RPE for treadmill speeds

From: Cadence (steps/min) and relative intensity in 21 to 60-year-olds: the CADENCE-adults study

Age Groups Treadmill Speed (mph)
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Group 1 (2130 years) n 37 37 37 37 37 36 36 34 14 4
Cadence 41.0 ± 8.7 65.6 ± 7.2 82.5 ± 7.1 95.4 ± 6.2 105.4 ± 5.5 113.0 ± 5.9 120.1 ± 6.1 127.8 ± 6.9 133.7 ± 6.2 142.5 ± 6.1
  [28–72] [53–82] [72–99] [85–108] [94–117] [101–127] [108–135] [115–143] [124–147] [135–148]
%HRmax 42.9 ± 7.0 43.9 ± 7.0 45.0 ± 6.9 46.2 ± 6.8 48.2 ± 6.9 51.5 ± 7.5 56.7 ± 8.6 64.0 ± 10.1 67.0 ± 11.3 72.9 ± 8.9
  [28.9–59.1] [30.9–59.2] [32.1–60.5] [34–61] [36–63] [38.3–67.5] [41.1–74.6] [44.5–85.5] [48.7–85] [61.1–80]
%HRR 12.4 ± 6.7 14.0 ± 6.6 15.7 ± 6.6 17.5 ± 6.7 20.7 ± 7.1 25.6 ± 8.4 33.6 ± 10.5 45.3 ± 13.8 51.3 ± 16.0 61.0 ± 13.6
  [0.4–26.1] [0.1–27.5] [1–29.2] [3.5–31] [5.7–36] [8.8–44.4] [13–55.8] [18–77.1] [22.1–75.6] [42.5–73.4]
RPE 7.2 ± 0.9 7.7 ± 1.0 8.2 ± 1.0 8.7 ± 1.1 9.5 ± 1.2 10.2 ± 1.3 11.4 ± 1.2 12.3 ± 1.3 13 ± 1.6 12.8 ± 1.0
  [6–10] [6–10] [6–10] [7–11] [7–12] [8–13] [9–14] [10–14] [10–15] [12–14]
Group 2 (3140 years) n 40 40 40 40 39 38 34 28 10 0
Cadence 49.2 ± 13.9 69.7 ± 10.2 85.0 ± 8.6 96.8 ± 6.8 106.3 ± 6.6 114.2 ± 6.3 122.4 ± 6.3 129.4 ± 5.8 141.7 ± 10.2 N/A
  [31–101] [56–105] [72–110] [86–115] [93–121] [101–125] [108–134] [116–139] [125–156] N/A
%HRmax 42.9 ± 6.9 44.4 ± 6.8 45.8 ± 6.5 47.4 ± 6.5 50.1 ± 6.9 54.3 ± 8.2 58.9 ± 8.3 68.4 ± 9.8 74.1 ± 6.7 N/A
  [29.5–56.5] [30.2–57.1] [32.8–57.4] [34.7–60.1] [37.4–64.9] [41.6–75.4] [45.8–81.3] [53.9–86.6] [66.7–84.3] N/A
%HRR 13.1 ± 6.2 15.3 ± 5.8 17.4 ± 5.6 19.9 ± 5.4 24.3 ± 6.3 30.7 ± 8.5 38.6 ± 10.0 52.9 ± 13.1 62.4 ± 9.5 N/A
  [−0.9–27.8] [2.4–26.7] [4.4–26.9] [8.8–32.2] [11.7–35.5] [19.8–54.7] [26.8–70.8] [35.4–79.1] [48.2–77.3] N/A
RPE 7.6 ± 1.5 8.2 ± 1.7 8.8 ± 1.7 9.5 ± 1.7 10.4 ± 1.6 10.9 ± 1.6 11.8 ± 1.4 12.8 ± 1.2 14.1 ± 1.3 N/A
  [6–11] [6–12] [6–12] [7–13] [8–14] [8–14] [9–15] [10–15] [12–16] N/A
Group 3 (41–50 years) n 40 39 39 39 39 39 38 26 6 1
Cadence 51.1 ± 16.6 68.6 ± 15.4 84.6 ± 10.8 97.0 ± 8.7 106.4 ± 7.4 114.6 ± 6.8 121.4 ± 6.7 130.8 ± 9.0 141.8 ± 9.4 157.4
  [31–112] [39–133] [65–131] [77–131] [89–130] [100–131] [109–135] [116–148] [129–151] N/A
%HRmax 45.8 ± 5.9 47.2 ± 5.9 48.5 ± 5.8 50.1 ± 5.9 52.9 ± 6.4 56.7 ± 6.7 62.5 ± 7.6 72.5 ± 9.9 79.1 ± 6.7 81.9
  [33.8–57.2] [35.1–59.8] [38–61.7] [39.9–64.6] [40.8–67.3] [43.2–67.7] [46.3–76.2] [53.4–83.3] [68.2–87.5] N/A
%HRR 14.2 ± 6.9 16.2 ± 7.3 18.3 ± 7.5 20.8 ± 7.9 25.3 ± 8.9 31.3 ± 9.3 40.6 ± 10.6 56.3 ± 14.9 67.2 ± 8.6 73.9
  [0.4–29.6] [3.7–33.9] [3.9–37] [6.7–41.8] [10.3–46.2] [13.5–46.9] [18.4–63.6] [28–74.2] [54.2–78.3] N/A
RPE 8.3 ± 1.7 8.5 ± 1.4 9.0 ± 1.4 9.7 ± 1.4 10.5 ± 1.3 11.4 ± 1.3 12.4 ± 1.2 13.3 ± 1.2 13.5 ± 1.0 13
  [6–15] [6–11] [6–12] [6–12] [7–13] [8–14] [9–15] [11–15] [12–15] N/A
Group 4 (5160 years) n 39 39 39 38 38 38 34 20 5 0
Cadence 54.2 ± 17.6 71.9 ± 13.1 84.6 ± 11.2 95.2 ± 7.9 104.6 ± 6.5 112.5 ± 6.9 118.5 ± 6.9 126.2 ± 8.1 136.9 ± 9.9 N/A
  [33–121] [57–133] [72–141] [83–129] [93–126] [101–127] [106–133] [112–143] [128–152] N/A
%HRmax 48.1 ± 8.2 49.8 ± 8.1 51.2 ± 8.1 52.7 ± 7.7 55.7 ± 7.5 59.9 ± 8.0 66.2 ± 8.7 71.5 ± 8.6 80.1 ± 10.0 N/A
  [31.8–66.1] [33.7–66.2] [36.8–66.9] [39.4–66.9] [44.5–71.3] [47.1–79.6] [52.8–84.2] [59.2–88.0] [68.1–93.4] N/A
%HRR 16.9 ± 7.0 19.6 ± 7.4 21.8 ± 7.6 24.1 ± 7.4 28.9 ± 7.6 35.7 ± 9.0 46.1 ± 11.1 55.9 ± 12.5 68.6 ± 14.7 N/A
  [6.3–34.1] [8.5–37.8] [10.2–39.5] [10.8–41.4] [12.7–43.5] [19.3–59.5] [28.5–75.2] [37.8–81.2] [51.4–89.7] N/A
RPE 8.4 ± 1.8 8.8 ± 1.7 9.4 ± 1.8 10.1 ± 1.3 10.8 ± 1.2 11.7 ± 1.2 12.5 ± 1.2 13.4 ± 1.4 14.6 ± 0.5 N/A
  [6–13] [6–13] [6–14] [8–13] [8–13] [9–14] [10–15] [11–16] [14, 15] N/A
  1. Values are means ± standard deviation or percentages [minimum-maximum]. HR maximum [HRmax] = 220 - age. Heart rate reserve [HRR] = HRmax - HRresting. RPE Rate of Perceived Exertion
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