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Table 3 Participant characteristics for Healthy Food Small Retailer Program (HFSRP) and comparison store customers (n = 1261) surveyed 2017–2020a

From: A four-year observational study to examine the dietary impact of the North Carolina Healthy Food Small Retailer Program, 2017–2020

  2017 2018 2019 2020 P-value for year effect  
Variable HFSRP Comparison HFSRP Comparison HFSRP Comparison HFSRP Comparison HFSRP Comparison
n 161 318 109 114 130 184 99 146   
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)   
Age (Years) 43.0 (15.1) 43.4 (15.1) 44.9 (13.9) 42.5 (14.8) 47.3 (15.2)b 41.2 (15.7) 47.2 (15.3) 41.5 (15.5) 0.053 0.377
Body Mass Index, BMI, kg/m2 30.4 (6.74) 29.8 (8.37) 30.1 (6.33) 27.7 (6.36) 29.5 (6.91) 29.6 (7.1) 27.8 (8.08) 28.4 (6.74) 0.036 0.039
Skin carotenoid score 236.6 (76.5) 232.9 (91.0) 236.8 (81.1) 248.5 (78.0) 243.3 (81.8) 235.4 (72.7) 242.2 (82.5) 227.3 (82.9) 0.868 0.234
2-item Screener of self-reported fruit and vegetable intake, servings/day 3.80 (2.61) 3.96 (3.79) 3.43 (2.29) 3.26 (2.87) 4.06 (3.56) 3.65 (3.41) 5.10 (5.83) 3.58 (2.74) 0.008 0.277
National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Screener, servings/day 3.61 (3.1) 3.82 (3.19) 3.42 (3.02) 3.53 (3.49) 3.40 (2.91) 3.87 (3.66) 3.20 (3.41) 4.48 (4.71) 0.787 0.192
Sugary beverages, servings/day 1.69 (1.94) 2.32 (2.49) 1.56 (2.02) 2.17 (2.3) 1.55 (2.22) 1.79 (2.32) 1.4 (1.89) 1.76 (2.15) 0.728 0.033
  Frequency (%) Frequency (Percentage) Frequency (Percentage) Frequency (Percentage) Frequency (Percentage) Frequency (Percentage) Frequency (Percentage) Frequency (Percentage)   
Sex (% female) 69 (42.9) 127 (40.3) 33 (30.3) 45 (40.2) 59 (46.8) 100 (54.9) 46 (46.5) 72 (50.7) 0.042 0.005
Race (%)
 Black 74 (46.3) 235 (74.6) 54 (49.5) 93 (82.3) 64 (51.6) 118 (64.8) 50 (51.0) 87 (62.1) 0.336 <.001
 White 76 (47.5) 50 (15.9) 48 (44) 13 (11.5) 46 (37.1) 22 (12.1) 44 (44.9) 21 (15)   
 Other 10 (6.3) 30 (9.5) 7 (6.4) 7 (6.2) 14 (11.3) 42 (23.1) 4 (4.1) 32 (22.9)   
Income (%)
  < $25,000 44 (27.3) 132 (41.5) 29 (26.6) 44 (38.6) 52 (40) 86 (46.7) 26 (26.3) 56 (38.4) 0.139 0.479
  > = $25,000 92 (57.1) 144 (45.3) 66 (60.6) 58 (50.9) 61 (46.9) 73 (39.7) 54 (54.5) 66 (45.2)   
 Income (missing) 25 (15.5) 42 (13.2) 14 (12.8) 12 (10.5) 17 (13.1) 25 (13.6) 19 (19.2) 24 (16.4)   
 Education (% some college) 76 (47.2) 96 (30.4) 47 (43.5) 37 (33) 63 (48.5) 76 (41.8) 60 (60.6) 53 (37.1) 0.078 0.069
 Employed (% yes) 111 (69.4) 180 (57.0) 79 (74.5) 58 (52.3) 72 (56.3) 106 (57.9) 64 (65.3) 90 (63.4) 0.021 0.347
 Previously purchased fruits or vegetables at the store (% yes) 36 (22.5) 68 (21.7) 25 (24.5) 22 (19.8) 55 (45.1) 60 (34.5) 45 (48.4) 59 (41.8) <.001 <.001
Shopping frequency at the store (%)
 1-2x/week or less 79 (53.7) 81 (25.7) 64 (59.3) 21 (18.6) 53 (42.4) 61 (34.9) 56 (58.3) 43 (30.1) 0.127 <.001
 3-6x/week 29 (19.7) 71 (22.5) 24 (22.2) 38 (33.6) 34 (27.2) 62 (35.4) 20 (20.8) 49 (34.3)   
 1x/day or more 39 (26.5) 163 (51.7) 20 (18.5) 54 (47.8) 38 (30.4) 52 (29.7) 20 (20.8) 51 (35.7)   
  1. aHFSRP Healthy Food Small Retailer Program Stores
  2. bBold faced numbers mean a statistically significant difference between HFSRP and comparison stores within a year