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Table 5 Sociodemographic and health characteristics of Australian men and women breakfast consumers and their associations with breakfast food profiles1 − 3

From: What do Australian adults eat for breakfast? A latent variable mixture modelling approach for understanding combinations of foods at eating occasions

  All breakfast consumers Wholegrain cereals & milks Protein-foods Bread & spreads 1 Mixed cereals & milks Bread & spreads 2 P value
   Men (n = 3545)  
Age (years, mean (95% confidence interval)) 47.0 (46.6, 47.4) 49.6 (47.7, 51.5)a 42.7 (41.0, 44.4)bd 54.7 (53.2, 56.1)c 45.1 (43.9, 46.2)d 40.2 (38.5, 41.9)be < 0.001
Country of birth (%)        < 0.001
 Australia 68 74 61 69 69 65  
 Mainly English speaking 12 13 10 13 13 8  
 All other countries 20 12 29 18 18 27  
Education level (%)        < 0.05
 Low 22 17 20 26 23 23  
 Medium 53 51 55 53 55 53  
 High 25 32 25 21 22 25  
Weekly income (quintiles, %)4        < 0.05
 First: <$398 16 13 13 21 17 16  
 Second: $399–638 16 13 19 19 15 13  
 Third: $639–958 21 19 21 20 20 24  
 Fourth: $959–1438 23 27 22 20 24 24  
 Fifth: ≥ $1439 24 28 25 21 24 22  
Geographic region (%)        < 0.001
 Major cities of Australia 70 73 73 63 71 74  
 Inner regional cities 20 17 15 25 20 19  
 Other areas (rural/remote) 10 10 12 12 9 8  
Social status (%)        < 0.001
 Married 64 71 58 72 60 57  
 Not married 36 29 42 28 41 43  
Hours worked (past week, %)        < 0.001
 None 33 31 29 45 31 23  
 < 40 h 27 28 26 22 27 32  
 ≥ 40 h 41 41 44 33 43 45  
Smoking status (%)        < 0.001
 Current smoker 16 10 26 14 16 19  
 Former smoker 37 38 36 46 34 29  
 Never smoker 47 52 39 40 49 52  
Met PA guidelines (%)5 45 51 43 42 42 50 < 0.05
   Women (n = 4127)  
Age (y, mean (95% confidence interval)) 48.5 (48.1, 48.9) 52.1 (50.1, 54.1)a 40.9 (38.8, 43.0)b 52.0 (50.0, 54.1)a 47.1 (46.2, 48.1)c 49.1 (47.2, 50.9)ac < 0.001
Country of birth (%)        < 0.001
 Australia 70 76 60 70 70 69  
 Mainly English speaking 11 13 8 12 12 9  
 All other countries 19 11 32 18 18 22  
Education level (%)        0.09
 Low 29 30 21 30 28 33  
 Medium 43 42 51 44 42 42  
 High 28 28 28 26 30 25  
Weekly income (quintiles, %)4        0.06
 First: <$398 21 17 24 22 21 23  
 Second: $399–638 19 21 13 22 19 21  
 Third: $639–958 19 18 20 20 18 22  
 Fourth: $959–1438 21 23 21 21 21 20  
 Fifth: ≥ $1439 19 22 23 16 21 14  
Geographic region (%)        0.46
 Major cities of Australia 73 73 78 69 72 73  
 Inner regional cities 18 19 13 21 18 18  
 Other areas (rural/remote) 9 8 9 10 9 9  
Social status (%)        < 0.01
 Married/defacto 58 62 51 59 56 65  
 Not married 42 38 49 41 44 35  
Hours worked (past week, %)        < 0.01
 None 46 47 40 51 43 49  
 < 40 h 37 38 43 33 37 38  
 ≥ 40 h 17 15 17 16 20 14  
Smoking status (%)        < 0.05
 Current smoker 13 9 14 15 13 13  
 Former smoker 28 32 25 30 26 27  
 Never smoker 59 59 61 55 61 60  
Met PA guidelines (%)5 42 49 44 43 42 36 < 0.05
  1. 1Values are weighted means (95% confidence interval) for continuous variables and weighted proportions for categorical variables
  2. 2Different superscript letters indicate significant differences between profiles, assessed using a F-test with Bonferroni correction for continuous variables. Differences between profiles for categorical variables were assessed using an adjusted Pearson Chi2 test
  3. 3The Breads and spreads profiles were differentiated by their accompanying beverages for men (Profile 1: coffee/tea; Profile 2: Sugar-sweetened beverages) and by bread grain varieties for women (Profile 1: wholegrain; Profile 2: refined grain)
  4. 4n = 2258 men and n = 2586 women due to missing cases for income
  5. 5Whether met physical activity (PA) guidelines of 150 min and 5 sessions per week