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Table 6 Adiposity characteristics of Australian men and women breakfast consumers and their associations with breakfast food profiles1 − 3

From: What do Australian adults eat for breakfast? A latent variable mixture modelling approach for understanding combinations of foods at eating occasions

  All breakfast consumers Wholegrain cereals & milks Protein-foods Bread & spreads 1 Mixed cereals & milks Bread & spreads 2
  Men5
BMI4, kg/m2 27.2 (27.0, 27.4) 26.6 (26.2, 27.1)a 27.1 (26.6, 27.7) 27.8 (27.3, 28.2)b 27.0 (26.6, 27.3)a 27.8 (27.2, 28.4)b
BMI ≥25 kg/m2, % 71 (68.6, 73.6) 68.9 (62.9, 74.8) 69.5 (63.7, 75.3) 75.0 (70.4, 79.4) 69.9 (61.1, 73.6) 71.6 (65.0, 78.1)
Waist circumference, cm 97.9 (97.3, 98.5) 95.4 (94.1, 96.8)a 97.8 (96.2, 99.4)b 99.4 (98.2, 100.5)b 97.2 (96.1, 98.3)a 99.9 (98.2, 101.5)b
Waist circumference, cm ≥94 cm, % 61.6 (58.7, 64.5) 58.3 (51.7, 64.9) 63.1 (56.1, 70.2) 66.4 (61.4, 71.4)b 58.5 (53.3, 63.8) 63.3 (56.7, 70.0)
  Women6
BMI4, kg/m2 26.4 (26.1, 26.6) 25.6 (25.1, 26.1)a 26.3 (25.1, 27.0) 26.3 (25.7, 26.9) 26.9 (26.4, 27.4)b 26.2 (25.6, 26.8)
BMI ≥25 kg/m2, % 56.2 (53.2, 59.2) 50.7 (43.9, 57.6) 56.1 (48.0, 64.2) 58.4 (52.6, 64.2) 58.9 (54.3, 63.5)b 53.9 (48.0, 59.8)
Waist circumference, cm 87.5 (86.8, 88.3) 85.5 (84.1, 86.9)a 88.1 (86.3, 90.0)b 87.6 (86.0, 89.1) 88.3 (87.1, 89.5)b 87.5 (86.1, 89.0)b
Waist circumference, cm ≥80 cm, % 68.5 (65.9, 71.1) 64.6 (57.8, 71.5) 71.9 (64.8, 78.9) 69.0 (64.1, 74.0) 69.2 (65.0, 73.4) 68.1 (62.9, 73.1)
  1. 1Values are weighted means (95% confidence intervals) for continuous variables and weighted percentages (95% confidence intervals) for categorical variables adjusted for age, education level, smoking status, meeting physical activity guidelines and energy intake at all eating occasions outside of breakfast
  2. 2Different superscript letters indicate significant pairwise differences between breakfast profiles after applying the Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05)
  3. 3The Breads and spreads profiles were differentiated by their accompanying beverages for men (Profile 1: coffee/tea; Profile 2: Sugar-sweetened beverages) and by bread grain varieties for women (Profile 1: wholegrain; Profile 2: refined grain)
  4. 4Values for BMI (continuous variable) are weighted geometric means (95% confidence interval)
  5. 5n = 3061 with no missing data for BMI and n = 3068 with no missing data for waist circumference
  6. 6n = 3431 with no missing data for BMI and n = 3414 with no missing data for waist circumference