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Table 4 Barriers to PA participation among cancer patients (% patients reporting the barrier)

From: Factors influencing physical activity participation among people living with or beyond cancer: a systematic scoping review

Cancer type Country, no. of participants, treatment stage Study design Physiological Psychosocial &
cultural
Economic & environmental Reference
(A) Treatment side effects, & (B) Co-morbidities (A) Low self-efficacy & motivation, (B) Low exercise discipline, (C) Kinesiophobia & (D) Not sporty, (E) Lack of social support, (F) Family responsibility, (G) Preference for other activities, & (H) Time pressures (A) Financial issues, (B) Poor weather, & (C)Unavailable/ inaccessible facilities
(A) (B) (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) (F) (G) (H) (A) (B) (C)  
Breast Canada, 9, post-ttt QI + + +    + + + + + + + + [40]
Canada,160, during ttt CS + (41)   + (4)        + (11)   + (6)   [97]
Canada, 8, during ttt QI + + +      +   +   + + [49]
Canada, 12, mixed QI +   +     + + + +    + [77]
Canada, 12, mixed FG + +    +   + +   + + + + [50]
NZ, 20 women FG    +    + +      + + [51]
Norway, 10, during ttt QI +   +            [98]
Norway, 27, during ttt FG +       + +   +     [52]
Spain, 14, post-ttt QI +   +     + +   +   +   [99]
Sweden, 16, during ttt QI +   +      +   +    + [53]
UK, 83, during ttt QI + + +   + +   + (20) + + + + (48) + [100]
US, 23, during ttt CS + (39)   + (39) +(52) + + + (26) + (22) + (26) + (39) + (22) + + (22) [55]
US, 30 women, on ttt QI +       +   +      [101]
US, 60 elderly, post-ttt QI + (43)      + (22)      + (40)   [54]
Colo-rectal Canada, 600, post-ttt CS + (14) + (9)       + (15) + (16) + (15)   + (25)   [57]
Canada, 69 survivors RCT + (25) + (1)       + (3)   + (32)   + (1)   [102]
Netherland, 15, mixed QI + + +     +    +     [92]
Spain, 30, during ttt QI +   +     + +   +    + [103]
Sweden, 17 elderly QI + + + +    + + + +    + [59]
US, 30, mixed stages QI + + +           + [104]
Endometrial UK, 16, post-ttt QI +   +     +    +   + + [60]
Gynecologic Canada, 239 patients MM        +    + +   + [44]
Head/neck England, 430, post-ttt CS + + + + + + + + + + + + + [23]
Kidney Canada, 482, post-ttt CS + (20) + (24) + (14)      + (19)   + (22)   + (15) + (8) [61]
Lung Australia, 7, post-ttt FG + + + + + + +    + + + + [63]
Denmark, 19, post-ttt QI + +             [64]
France, 5, during ttt QI + + +   +   +      +   [105]
UK, 28 patients MM        +        [106]
US, 43, pre-ttt CS + (34)             +(16) [65]
Lung & GI US, 34 patients QI + + +   + +   + + +   + + [107]
Lymphoma US, post-ttt survivors FG +   +            [108]
Multiple myeloma Australia, 24, post-ttt QI +   +   +          [66]
Ovarian Australia, 95, mixed CS + (38)   + (26) + (36) + (12) +(35) + (11) + (13) + (21) + (14) + (7) + (12) + (6) [109]
Australia, 95, mixed CS + (38) + + + (33)   +(35)   +       [110]
US, 10 women, post-ttt QI + +       +   +   + + [111]
Prostate Australia, 18, post-ttt QI + +    +   +    +     [68]
Australia, 14 men QI + + + +    + +   + +    [112]
England, 16 men, post-ttt QI + + +     +    +   +   [113]
Ireland, 20 men QI +   +     +    +   + + [31]
Sarcoma UK, 6, during ttt QI +   +     +        [114, 115]
Variousa Australia, 101, mixed CS +   +    +         [116]
Australia, 20, on ttt QI +   +     +       + [117]
Australia, 10, post-ttt CS + (52)   + (14)   + (9)   + (5)   + (39) + (34)   + (15) + (13) [71]
Australia, 92, during ttt CS + (51)   +            [94]
Australia, 15, mixed QI +   +   + +     +    + [70]
Australia, 9, during ttt QI/FG +   +     +       + [69]
Canada,66, mixed stages CS +     +     + +    + [72]
Canada, 788 patients CS + (41) + (4) + (30)   + (13)   + (14) + (25) + (19) + (30)   + (26) + (10) [22]
Canada, 30, during ttt CS + (74)   + (82)   + (26)   + (60)        [20]
Denmark, 33, during ttt QI +   + +   +   +   +     [118]
Denmark, 451, during ttt CS + (74)       + (14)    + (14) + (13)   + (15) [48]
England, 41, post-ttt CS + (32)   + (12)   + (12)     + (18) + (27)    + (15) [119]
England, 59, mixed CS + (48) + (22) + (18) + (18) + (18) +(10) + (45)     + (20)    [74, 75]
Germany, 141 patients CS + (77) + (85) + (50)   + (27) +(40) + + (5)   + (5)   + (4) + (7) [18]
Ireland, 41, mixed FG + + +     + + +   +   + [77]
Italy, 12 females, post-ttt FG +     +   +    +   + + [78]
NZ, 25, mixed stages QI +   +   +   +     +   + [81]
Norway, 7, during ttt QI +              [80]
Sweden, 18, during ttt FG + + +     +    +    + [24]
UK, 19, post-ttt QI + +      +    +   +   [37]
UK, 456, post-ttt CS + (36) + (37) + (27)   + (20)        + (26) + (26) [43]
UK, 6, post-ttt QI +   +   +    + + +   +   [82]
UK, 12, mixed stages QI + +      +        [36]
UK, 1, mixed stages QI +     + +        + [83]
UK, 26, mixed stages FG +   +   +   +    + +   + [84]
US, 25, post-ttt FG +   +     + +    +   + [86]
US, 162, mixed stages CS + (34)   + (36) + (24)    + (35)    + (24)     [96]
US, 662, mixed stages CS + (78)   + (67) + (24)    + (6)    + (29) + (20)   + (11) [25]
US, 20, post-ttt QI + + +     +    + +   + [39]
US, 20, during ttt QI +   +            [85]
US, 452 patients CS +   +   +   + + + +   + + [120]
US, 622 patients CS + (78)   + (68) + (65)           [21]
US, 590 patients CS + +        + (8) + (21)     [42]
US, 566 older adults CS   +             [121]
US, 640 patients CS + (27)     + (3)     + (11) + (27) + (3)    [47]
US, 13, mixed stages QI +   +   +   +       + [122]
  1. Abbreviations: CS cross-sectional, FG focus groups, MM mixed-method, NZ New Zealand, PA physical activity, QI qualitative interview, ttt treatment, RCT randomized controlled trial. a The study included various mixed cancer types