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Table 7 The four firm concentration ratio (CR4) and the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) for the supermarket industry per European Single Market member state. Red indicates CR4 values > 60% and HHI values > 2000 so highly concentrated markets, yellow indicates CR4 values between 40 and 60% and HHI values between 1000 and 2000 so moderately concentrated markets and green indicates CR4 values ≤40 and HHI < 1000 so unconcentrated markets. Between brackets the percent change over the past 10 years is included (2008–2017). Euromonitor data 2017

From: A detailed mapping of the food industry in the European single market: similarities and differences in market structure across countries and sectors