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Table 3 Mediation analyses displaying associations between policy implementation (2017 vs. 2016), advertising exposure, and consumption of overall high-in foods (n = 679; 1,358 observations)

From: TV advertising and dietary intake in adolescents: a pre- and post- study of Chile’s Food Marketing Policy

  a-coefficient2 b-coefficient c’-coefficient
Direct Effect
ab
Indirect (mediation) Effect
Proportion of total variance accounted for by ab path 5
  (policy→ ads) (ads→ intake) (policy→ intake)
  β3 (99 % CI) β (99 % CI) β (99 % CI) β (99 % CI)
Absolute quantity (kcal)1,3          
Any “High-in” ad -4.6* (-5.7, -3.5) 4 (-2, 10) -37 (-135, 61) -16 (-44, 12) 30.4 %
High calorie -2.3* (-2.8, -1.8) 8 (-6, 22) -35 (-134, 64) -18 (-50, 14) 34.2 %
High sugar -3.0* (-3.7, -2.3) 5 (-5, 14) -39 (-137, 59) -14 (-42, 15) 26.1 %
High fat -1.3* (-1.6, -1.0) 16 (-14, 46) -32 (-133, 70) -21 (-61, 18) 39.9 %
High sodium -0.2* (-0.3, 0.0) 31 (-18, 79) -48 (-142, 46) -5 (-14, 4) 9.4 %
Energy adjusted (% kcal)1,4          
Any “High-in” ad -4.6* (-5.7, -3.5) 0.0 (-0.2, 0.3) -3.6 (-7.4, 0.3) -0.1 (-1.2, 1.0) 3.0 %
High calorie -2.3* (-2.8, -1.8) 0.1 (-0.5, 0.6) -3.5 (-7.4, 0.4) -0.2 (-1.4, 1.1) 4.9 %
High sugar -3.0* (-3.7, -2.3) 0.0 (-0.4, 0.4) -3.7 (-7.5, 0.2) 0.0 (-1.1, 1.1) 0.1 %
High Fat -1.3* (-1.6, -1.0) 0.1 (-0.9, 1.1) -3.6 (-7.5, 0.4) -0.1 (-1.4, 1.2) 3.0 %
High sodium -0.2* (-0.3, 0.0) 0.4 (-1.5, 2.3) -3.6 (-7.3, 0.1) -0.1 (-0.4, 0.3) 1.7 %
  1. 1Analyses adjusted for child’s sex and age, mother’s education level, marital state, home ownership, and day of recall
  2. 2 Expressed in minutes of advertising per week (a-coefficient reflects policy effect on advertising)
  3. 3 Total effect of policy on consumption of “high-in” products in kcal = -53 kcal [99CI: -147, 41] p = 0.146
  4. 4 Total effect of policy on energy adjusted consumption of high-in products = -3.7 % kcal [99CI: -7.4, 0.0] p = 0.011
  5. 5 ab/[(ab) + c’] *100
  6. *p < 0.01.