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Table 6 General, gender-, and education-specific intervention effects at T1 (fully adjusted models)

From: Equity-specific effects of interventions to promote physical activity among middle-aged and older adults: results from applying a novel equity-specific re-analysis strategy

Study General intervention effecta Gender-specific intervention effectsb
Males Females P-value
intervention*gender interaction
n Estimate (95% CI) n Estimate (95% CI) n Estimate (95% CI)
Active Plus I 1370 5.3 (− 53.6; 64.3) 603 − 113.5 (− 203.7; −23.3) 767 104.8 (19.9; 189.7) < 0.001
Active Plus II 1150 196.3 (113.1; 279.4) 554 151.7 (30.7; 272.7) 596 215.3 (92.5; 338.2) 0.465
Every Step Counts! 389 17.4 (6.1; 28.8) 128 24.2 (4.0; 44.4) 261 18.2 (1.7; 34.7) 0.624
GALM 181 28.3 (−43.9; 100.4) 80 71.7 (−37.2; 180.5) 101 −22.3 (− 122.5; 77.9) 0.213
PACE-Liftd 275 74.4 (43.7; 105.1) 125 93.7 (50.6; 136.9) 150 58.6 (19.2; 98.0) 0.195
PACE-UPd 939 48.0 (30.5; 65.4) 341 45.7 (17.4; 74.0) 598 48.0 (26.9; 69.1) 0.958
ProAct65 + e 667 −4.8 (−48.9; 39.2) 245 −38.6 (−102.5; 25.4) 422 14.1 (−36.9; 65.1) 0.142
PROMOTEf 350 7.6 (2.6; 12.6) 160 14.7 (−0.2; 29.6) 190 8.6 (−4.9; 22.2) 0.245
Study Education-specific intervention effectsc
Low education Medium education High education P-value
intervention*education interaction
n Estimate (95% CI) n Estimate (95% CI) n Estimate (95% CI)
Active Plus I 666 −19.6 (− 104.5; 65.2) 254 5.6 (− 130.8; 142.0) 450 1.0 (− 103.7; 105.8) 0.933
Active Plus II 533 225.4 (103.5; 347.2) 309 213.1 (53.0; 373.1) 308 112.1 (−57.5; 281.6) 0.546
Every Step Counts! 222 17.6 (2.0; 33.3) 126 12.9 (−8.6; 34.4) 41 33.1 (1.2; 65.0) 0.581
GALM 68 87.6 (−28.4; 203.5) 69 29.2 (−92.6; 150.9) 44 −42.7 (− 186.9; 101.6) 0.378
PACE-Liftd 110 105.6 (58.4; 152.8) 44 30.1 (−43.0; 103.2) 121 62.5 (17.9; 107.0) 0.164
PACE-UPd 247 14.2 (−19.9; 48.3) 210 87.5 (52.5; 122.6) 482 46.5 (22.2; 70.8) 0.012
ProAct65 + e 275 −35.8 (−97.4; 25.7) 235 21.4 (−43.8; 86.6) 157 8.3 (−68.2; 84.9) 0.339
PROMOTEf 6 19.7 (−18.7; 58.2) 168 5.8 (−1.4; 13.0) 176 9.5 (2.3; 16.8) 0.633
  1. aModels adjusted for minutes of MVPA per week at T0, age in years, gender, and education
  2. bModels adjusted for minutes of MVPA per week at T0, age in years, education, and the intervention*education interaction
  3. cModels adjusted for minutes of MVPA per week at T0, age in years, gender, and the intervention*gender interaction
  4. dModels additionally adjusted for practice, and multi-level adjusted for household as a random effect
  5. eModels additionally multi-level adjusted for practice as a random effect
  6. fModels additionally adjusted for community, valid wear-time, and season