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Table 2 Moderator analysis of exercise intervention and overall EFs

From: The impact of exercise interventions concerning executive functions of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Categorical moderator Level Standardized mean difference 95% CI Test of heterogeneity
Q d.f. P-value
Intervention type AE 1.001 [0.466, 1.536] 1.750 1 0.186
CEE 0. 598 [0.335, 0.862]    
Intervention intensity LPA 0.797 [−0.381, 1.975] 6.086 4 0.193
MPA 0.539 [0.029, 1.048]    
MVPA 0.349 [−0.080, 0.778]    
VPA 1.426 [−0.651, 1.503]    
Unclear 1.029 [0.650, 1.409]    
Exercise sessions of intervention Acute 0.389 [−0.048, 0.826] 2.301 1 0.129
Chronic 0.789 [0.513, 1.065]    
Continuous moderator Level β 95% CI Q d.f. P-value
Age 6–18 −0.325 [−0.129, −0.064] 0.432 1 0.511
Duration of exercise (min) 5–4500 −0.0000 [−0.00011, 0.00011] 0.00014 1 0.990
  1. AE aerobic exercise, CEE cognitively engaging exercise, LPA light physical activity, MPA moderate physical activity, MVPA moderate to vigorous physical activity, VPA vigorous physical activity