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Table 1 Risk of bias judgement by domains of bias using the ROBINS-I tool

From: Muscle-strengthening activities and cancer incidence and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

  Confoundinga Selection of participants Classification of exposure Deviations from intended exposures Missing data Measurement of outcomes Selection of the reported result
Darkel, 2016 [25] Serious Moderate Low Moderate Ni Low Moderate
Boyle, 2012 [22] Critical Serious Serious Serious Moderate Moderate Serious
Kamada, 2017 [8] Low Low Low Moderate Low Low Moderate
Keum, 2016 [23] Low Low Moderate Moderate Low Low Moderate
Kraschnewski, 2016 [18] Serious Moderate Low Moderate Low Low Moderate
Loprinzi, 2017 [20] Serious Critical Low Moderate Ni Low Moderate
Mazzilli, 2019 [12] Serious Low Low Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
Patel, 2020 [19] Serious Low Low Moderate Moderate Low Moderate
Rezende, 2020 [13] Low Low Low Moderate Low Low Moderate
Siahpush, 2018 [24] Serious Low Low Moderate Ni Low Moderate
Stamatakis, 2018 [11] Serious Low Low Moderate Ni Low Moderate
Zhao, 2020 [21] Serious Low Low Moderate Low Low Moderate
  1. a A list of confounders considered in the assessment of risk of confounding: age, sex, smoking, adiposity, alcohol consumption, dietary factors, individual-level socioeconomic factors, and other aerobic physical activities