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Table 2 MAPS-Global item-level and subscale levels of consistency and descriptive statistics for in-country in-field observers versus remote online observers

From: International evaluation of the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) Global instrument: comparative assessment between local and remote online observers

Variable Descriptiona # items (range of scores) Mean (S.D.) Null Count (%) ICC, CI (95 % Lower & Upper Bound) Sample items and overall subscale description
   Destinations & Land Use (DLU)
Positive Destinations & Land Use
  Residential Mix 4 (0–3) †: 2.60 (1.00)
‡: 2.89 (0.85)
5 (2.6 %)
3 (1.5 %)
0.47 (0.35, 0.57) Single family, multi-family, mixed, apartment over retail
  Shops 8 (0–28) †: 5.12 (5.65)
‡: 4.02 (4.11)
57 (29.1 %)
57 (29.1 %)
0.71 (0.68, 0.77) Grocery, convenience store, bakery, drugstore, other retail, shopping mall, strip mall, open-air market
  Restaurant-Entertainment 4 (0–20) †: 2.74 (3.53)
‡: 2.10 (2.84)
81 (41.3 %)
95 (48.5 %)
0.64 (0.54, 0.71) Fast food, sit-down, café, entertainment
  Institutional-Service 3 (0–15) †: 4.61 (4.15)
‡: 2.92 (3.34)
43 (21.9 %)
77 (39.3 %)
0.65 (0.56, 0.72) Bank, health-related professional, other service
  Worship 1 (0–5) †: 0.28 (0.60)
‡: 0.22 (0.61)
148 (75.5 %)
165 (84.2 %)
0.56 (0.46, 0.65) Place of worship
  School 1 (0–5) †: 0.87 (1.27)
‡: 0.34 (0.58)
95 (48.5 %)
140 (71.4 %)
0.18 (0.04, 0.37) School land use
  Public Recreation 4 (0–20) †: 0.51 (0.73)
‡: 0.46 (0.75)
120 (61.2 %)
130 (66.3 %)
0.47 (0.35, 0.57) Public indoor, public outdoor facility, park, trail
  Private Recreation 2 (0–10) †: 0.18 (0.49)
‡: 0.15 (0.40)
169 (86.2 %)
170 (86.7 %)
0.27 (0.14, 0.40) Private indoor, private outdoor facility
  Pedestrian Street 1 (0–5) †: 0.18 (0.53)
‡: 0.16 (0.46)
155 (79.1 %)
171 (87.2 %)
0.34 (0.21, 0.46) Pedestrian street/zone
Negative Destinations & Land Use
  Age-restricted bar or nightclub 1 (0–5) †: 0.14 (0.50)
‡: 0.33 (0.78)
140 (74.1 %)
156 (79.6 %)
0.04 (-0.10, 0.18) Age-restricted bar/nightclub
  Liquor or alcohol store 1 (0–5) †: 0.04 (0.19)
‡: 0.06 (0.26)
180 (91.8 %)
186 (94.9 %)
0.16 (0.02, 0.29) Liquor or alcohol store
  Positive DLU 28 (0-111) †: 16.46 (13.58)
‡: 12.20 (9.68)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.69 (0.60, 0.75) Sum of the positive DLU subscales
  Negative DLU 2 (0–10) †: 0.29 (0.82)
‡: 0.44 (0.93)
161 (82.1 %)
143 (73.0 %)
0.06 (-0.08, 0.20) Sum of the negative DLU subscales
  Overall DLU 30 †: 16.18 (13.41)
‡: 11.76 (9.32)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.66 (0.59, 0.75) Positive DLU - Negative DLU
Streetscape Characteristics
  Positive Streetscape 22 (0–29) †: 7.19 (4.56)
‡: 5.51 (3.88)
15 (7.7 %)
25 (12.8 %)
0.66 (0.58, 0.73) Transit, traffic calming, trash bins, benches, bike racks, bike lockers, bike docking stations, kiosks, hawkers.
Aesthetics & Social Characteristics
  Positive Aesthetics/Social 4 (0–4) †: 0.81 (0.84)
‡: 1.56 (1.15)
82 (41.8 %)
47 (24.0 %)
0.09 (-0.05, 0.23) Hardscape, water, softscape, landscaping
  Negative Aesthetics/Social 6 (0–6) †: 2.86 (1.44)
‡: 1.76 (1.50)
12 (6.1 %)
57 (29.1 %)
0.16 (0.02, 0.30) Buildings not maintained, graffiti, litter, dog fouling, physical disorder, highway near
  Overall Aesthetics/Social 10 †: -2.05 (1.81)
‡: -0.19 (2.42)
16 (8.2 %)
24 (12.2 %)
0.11 (-0.03, 0.24) Positive Aesthetics/Social - Negative Aesthetics/Social
Crossings/Intersections
Positive Crossing Subscales
  Crosswalk Amenities 7 (0–7) †: 0.88 (0.93)
‡: 1.03 (1.09)
69 (38.8 %)
76 (42.7 %)
0.85 (0.80, 0.88) Crossing aids, marked crosswalk, high visibility striping, different material, curb extension, raised crosswalk, refuge islands
  Curb Quality & Presence 3 (0–6) †: 4.24 (1.42)
‡: 3.33 (2.09)
3 (1.7 %)
24 (13.5 %)
0.53 (0.41, 0.62) Curb presence, curb ramps lined up, tactile paving
  Intersection Control & Signage 7 (0–7) †: 1.03 (0.82)
‡: 1.08 (0.79)
26 (14.6 %)
27 (15.2 %)
0.82 (0.77, 0.87) Yield signs, stop signs, traffic signal, traffic circle, pedestrian walk signals, push buttons, countdown signal
  Bicycle Features 3 (0–3) †: 0.04 (0.17)
‡: 0.04 (0.12)
168 (94.4 %)
163 (91.6 %)
0.65 (0.55, 0.72) Waiting area, bike lane crossing the crossing, bike signal
  Overpass 1 (0–1) †: 0.01 (0.08)
‡: 0.04 (0.16)
185 (97.4 %)
178 (93.7 %)
0.02 (-0.12, 0.17) Crossing on pedestrian overpass, bridge
Negative Crossing Subscales
  Road Width 1 (0–2) †: 0.19 (0.42)
‡: 0.54 (0.54)
73 (41.0 %)
141 (79.2 %)
0.40 (0.26, 0.51) Distance of crossing leg
  Positive Crossing 21 (0–24) †: 6.20 (2.78)
‡: 5.49 (3.35)
2 (1.1 %)
7 (3.9 %)
0.82 (0.77, 0.87) Sum of the positive crossing subscales
  Negative Crossing 1 (0–2) †: 0.19 (0.42)
‡: 0.54 (0.54)
73 (41.0 %)
141 (79.2 %)
0.40 (0.26, 0.51) Sum of the negative crossing subscales
  Overall Crossing 22 †: 6.01 (2.54)
‡: 4.94 (3.27)
2 (1.1 %)
1 (0.6 %)
0.76 (0.69, 0.82) Positive Crossing - Negative Crossing
Street Segments
Positive Segment Subscales
  Building Height-Setback 4 (0–10) †: 6.11 (3.71)
‡: 5.83 (3.13)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.84 (0.80, 0.88) Building height, smallest and largest setback
  Building Height-Road Width Ratio 5 (0–3) †: 1.17 (1.06)
‡: 1.20 (0.91)
55 (30.2 %)
25 (13.7 %)
0.56 (0.45, 0.65) Building height, setback and road width
  Buffer 2 (0–5) †: 3.01 (1.61)
‡: 2.80 (1.38)
18 (10.0 %)
11 (6.1 %)
0.40 (0.27, 0.51) Parking along street, buffer
  Bike Infrastructure 3 (0–5) †: 0.29 (1.08)
‡: 0.33 (0.88)
178 (95.2 %)
153 (81.8 %)
0.57 (0.47, 0.66) Bike lane presence, quality, signage
  Shade 3 (0–6) †: 0.16 (0.41)
‡: 0.11 (0.32)
163 (85.8 %)
168 (88.4 %)
0.76 (0.69, 0.81) Number of trees, sidewalk coverage, shade
  Sidewalk 2 (0–6) †: 19.55 (6.18)
‡: 18.81 (4.70)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.76 (0.69, 0.81) Sidewalk presence and width
  Pedestrian infrastructure 5 (0–5) †: 1.07 (0.78)
‡: 1.22 (0.55)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.39 (0.26, 0.51) Mid-segment crossing, pedestrian bridge, covered place to walk, street lights
  Building Aesthetics and Design 1 (0–2) †: 1.34 (0.67)
‡: 1.19 (0.67)
25 (13.2 %)
22 (11.6 %)
0.53 (0.42, 0.63) Street windows
  Informal Path or Shortcut 1 (0–1) †: 0.13 (0.26)
‡: 0.02 (0.10)
160 (84.2 %)
187 (98.4 %)
0.07 (-0.07, 0.21) Informal path connecting to something else
  Hawkers/Shops 1 (0–2) †: 0.14 (0.43)
‡: 0.00 (0.02)
172 (90.5 %)
190 (100.0 %)
-0.03 (0.17, 0.11) Hawkers/shops on sidewalk/pedestrian zone
Negative Segment Subscales
  Sidewalk 7 (0–13) †: 3.31 (3.39)
‡: 2.24 (1.75)
33 (17.7 %)
20 (10.8 %)
0.28 (0.15, 0.41) Non-continuous sidewalk, trip hazards, obstructions, cars blocking walkway, slope, gates, driveways
  Positive Segment 27 (0–45) †: 19.55 (6.18)
‡: 18.81 (4.70)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.76 (0.69, 0.81) Sum of the positive segment subscales
  Negative Segment 7 (0–13) †: 3.21 (2.49)
‡: 2.25 (1.75)
11 (5.9 %)
27 (14.4 %)
0.52 (0.41, 0.62) Sum of the negative segment subscales
  Overall Segment 34 †: 16.15 (8.56)
‡: 16.54 (5.95)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.73 (0.65, 0.79) Positive Segment - Negative Segment
Overall Valence and Grand Scores
  Overall Positive 102 (0-210) †: 10.04 (5.59)
‡: 8.71 (4.55)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.60 (0.52, 0.68) Positive DLU, positive streetscape, positive aesthetics/social, positive segment (mean of all segments), positive crossing (mean of all segments).
  Overall Negative 16 (0–22) †: 1.63 (1.29)
‡: 1.25 (1.18)
11 (5.6 %)
27 (13.8 %)
0.29 (0.15, 0.41) Negative DLU, negative aesthetics/social, negative segment (mean of all segments), negative crossing (mean of all crossings).
  Overall Grand Score 118 †: 22.08 (15.55)
‡: 18.21 (11.17)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.75 (0.68, 0.80) Overall Positive - Overall Negative
Cross-Domain Subscales
  Pedestrian Infrastructure 13 (0–27) †: 7.90 (2.51)
‡: 7.48 (2.41)
3 (1.7 %)
2 (1.1 %)
0.69 (0.60–0.76) Trail, pedestrian zone, sidewalk presence/width, buffer, shortcut, mid-segment crossing, pedestrian bridge, air-conditioned place to walk, low lights, overpass, crosswalk, refuge island
  Pedestrian Design 13 (0–21) †: 10.23 (4.00)
‡: 8.76 (4.00)
1 (0.6 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.82 (0.76–0.86) Open-air market, trash cans, benches, kiosks, hawkers and shops, setback, visibility, pedestrian walk signals, push buttons, countdown signals, ramps, crossing aids
  Bicycle Facilities 9 (0–11) †: 0.78 (1.31)
‡: 0.77 (1.19)
119 (68.0 %)
97 (55.4 %)
0.73 (0.65–0.79) Bike racks, docking stations, lockers, bike lane, bike lane quality, signs, bike signal, bike box, bike lane perpendicular to the crossing
  1. a: Cul-de-sac/Dead-end variables were excluded due to low frequency
  2. †: In-country, in-field observer
  3. ‡: Remote, online observer