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Table 3 MAPS-Global item-level and subscale inter-rater reliability and descriptive statistics for in-country online observers versus remote online observers

From: International evaluation of the Microscale Audit of Pedestrian Streetscapes (MAPS) Global instrument: comparative assessment between local and remote online observers

Variable Descriptiona # items (range of scores) Mean (S.D.) Null Count (%) ICC, CI (95 % Lower & Upper Bound) Sample items and overall subscale description
   Destinations & Land Use (DLU)
Positive Destinations & Land Use
  Residential Mix 4 (0–3) †: 2.62 (0.99)
‡: 2.89 (0.85)
3 (1.5 %)
3 (1.5 %)
0.48 (0.37, 0.58) Single family, multi-family, mixed, apartment over retail
  Shops 8 (0–28) †: 4.10 (4.70)
‡: 4.02 (4.11)
60 (30.5 %)
57 (29.1 %)
0.89 (0.86, 0.92) Grocery, convenience store, bakery, drugstore, other retail, shopping mall, strip mall, open-air market
  Restaurant-Entertainment 4 (0–20) †: 4.10 (4.70)
‡: 2.10 (2.84)
93 (47.2 %)
95 (48.5 %)
0.85 (0.81, 0.89) Fast food, sit-down, café, entertainment
  Institutional-Service 3 (0–15) †: 3.67 (3.83)
‡: 2.92 (3.34)
61 (31.0 %)
77 (39.3 %)
0.84 (0.79, 0.88) Bank, health-related professional, other service
  Worship 1 (0–5) †: 0.19 (0.48)
‡: 0.22 (0.61)
166 (84.3 %)
165 (84.2 %)
0.56 (0.46, 0.65) Place of worship
  School 1 (0–5) †: 0.55 (0.84)
‡: 0.34 (0.58)
120 (60.9 %)
140 (71.4 %)
0.50 (0.38, 0.59) School land use
  Public Recreation 4 (0–20) †: 0.49 (0.81)
‡: 0.46 (0.75)
130 (66.3 %)
130 (66.3 %)
0.60 (0.50, 0.68) Public indoor, public outdoor facility, park, trail
  Private Recreation 2 (0–10) †: 0.16 (0.48)
‡: 0.15 (0.40)
173 (87.8 %)
170 (86.7 %)
0.27 (0.13, 0.39) Private indoor, private outdoor facility
  Pedestrian Street 1 (0–5) †: 0.22 (0.65)
‡: 0.16 (0.46)
170 (86.7 %)
171 (87.2 %)
0.45 (0.33, 0.56) Pedestrian street/zone
Negative Destinations & Land Use
  Age-restricted bar or nightclub 1 (0–5) †: 0.13 (0.42)
‡: 0.33 (0.78)
177 (89.8 %)
156 (79.6 %)
0.17 (0.03, 0.31) Age-restricted bar/nightclub
  Liquor or alcohol store 1 (0–5) †: 0.04 (0.26)
‡: 0.06 (0.26)
190 (96.4 %)
186 (94.9 %)
0.39 (0.27, 0.50) Liquor or alcohol store
  Positive DLU 28 (0-111) †: 13.50 (11.49)
‡: 12.20 (9.68)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.92 (0.89, 0.93) Sum of the positive DLU subscales
  Negative DLU 2 (0–10) †: 0.35 (0.95)
‡: 0.44 (0.93)
158 (80.2 %)
143 (73.0 %)
0.30 (0.17, 0.42) Sum of the negative DLU subscales
  Overall DLU 30 †: 13.16 (11.50)
‡: 11.76 (9.32)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.89 (0.86, 0.92) Positive DLU - Negative DLU
Streetscape Characteristics
  Positive Streetscape 22 (0–29) †: 6.26 (3.81)
‡: 5.51 (3.88)
12 (6.1 %)
25 (12.8 %)
0.62 (0.52, 0.69) Transit, traffic calming, trash bins, benches, bike racks, bike lockers, bike docking stations, kiosks, hawkers.
Aesthetics & Social Characteristics
  Positive Aesthetics/Social 4 (0–4) †: 0.99 (0.83)
‡: 1.56 (1.15)
57 (28.9 %)
47 (24.0 %)
0.21 (0.08, 0.34) Hardscape, water, softscape, landscaping
  Negative Aesthetics/Social 6 (0–6) †: 2.13 (1.46)
‡: 1.76 (1.50)
37 (18.8 %)
57 (29.1 %)
0.54 (0.43, 0.63) Buildings not maintained, graffiti, litter, dog fouling, physical disorder, highway near
  Overall Aesthetics/Social 10 †: -1.13 (1.91)
‡: -0.19 (2.42)
30 (15.2 %)
24 (12.2 %)
0.47 (0.35, 0.57) Positive Aesthetics/Social - Negative Aesthetics/Social
Crossings/Intersections
Positive Crossing Subscales
  Crosswalk Amenities 7 (0–7) †: 1.17 (1.38)
‡: 1.03 (1.09)
92 (51.9 %)
76 (42.7 %)
0.81 (0.78, 0.84) Crossing aids, marked crosswalk, high visibility striping, different material, curb extension, raised crosswalk, refuge islands
  Curb Quality & Presence 3 (0–6) †: 4.11 (1.78)
‡: 3.33 (2.09)
16 (9.0 %)
24 (13.5 %)
0.46 (0.38, 0.53) Curb presence, curb ramps lined up, tactile paving
  Intersection Control & Signage 7 (0–7) †: 0.95 (1.06)
‡: 1.08 (0.79)
74 (41.6 %)
27 (15.2 %)
0.73 (0.68, 0.77) Yield signs, stop signs, traffic signal, traffic circle, pedestrian walk signals, push buttons, countdown signal
  Bicycle Features 3 (0–3) †: 0.04 (0.24)
‡: 0.04 (0.12)
172 (96.5 %)
163 (91.6 %)
0.48 (0.41, 0.55) Waiting area, bike lane crossing the crossing, bike signal
  Overpass 1 (0–1) †: 0.01 (0.09)
‡: 0.04 (0.16)
171 (96.1 %)
178 (93.7 %)
0.24 (0.16 0.33) Crossing on pedestrian overpass, bridge
Negative Crossing Subscales
  Road Width 1 (0–2) †: 0.14 (0.44)
‡: 0.54 (0.54)
159 (89.5 %)
141 (79.2 %)
0.39 (0.31, 0.46) Distance of crossing leg
  Positive Crossing 21 (0–24) †: 6.34 (3.60)
‡: 5.49 (3.35)
11 (6.3 %)
7 (3.9 %)
0.75 (0.71, 0.79) Sum of the positive crossing subscales
  Negative Crossing 1 (0–2) †: 0.14 (0.44)
‡: 0.54 (0.54)
159 (89.5 %)
141 (79.2 %)
0.39 (0.31, 0.46) Sum of the negative crossing subscales
  Overall Crossing 22 †: 6.22 (3.45)
‡: 4.94 (3.27)
11 (6.2 %)
1 (0.6 %)
0.70 (0.65, 0.75) Positive Crossing - Negative Crossing
Street Segments
Positive Segment Subscales
  Building Height-Setback 4 (0–10) †: 6.00 (3.33)
‡: 5.83 (3.13)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.75 (0.72, 0.78) Building height, smallest and largest setback
  Building Height-Road Width Ratio 5 (0–3) †: 1.24 (1.07)
‡: 1.20 (0.91)
51 (28.0 %)
25 (13.7 %)
0.63 (0.58, 0.67) Building height, setback and road width
  Buffer 2 (0–5) †: 3.24 (1.78)
‡: 2.80 (1.38)
23 (12.6 %)
11 (6.1 %)
0.58 (0.53, 0.63) Parking along street, buffer
  Bike Infrastructure 3 (0–5) †: 0.36 (1.16)
‡: 0.33 (0.88)
41 (21.4 %)
153 (81.8 %)
0.58 (0.76, 0.81) Bike lane presence, quality, signage
  Shade 3 (0–6) †: 1.70 (1.39)
‡: 0.11 (0.32)
41 (21.4 %)
168 (88.4 %)
0.53 (0.47, 0.58) Number of trees, sidewalk coverage, shade
  Sidewalk 2 (0–6) †: 5.14 (1.19)
‡: 18.81 (4.70)
5 0 (5.5 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.62 (0.57, 0.66) Sidewalk presence and width
  Pedestrian infrastructure 5 (0–5) †: 0.91 (0.71)
‡: 1.22 (0.55)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.19 (0.11, 0.26) Mid-segment crossing, pedestrian bridge, covered place to walk, street lights
  Building Aesthetics and Design 1 (0–2) †: 0.73 (0.82)
‡: 1.19 (0.67)
96 (50.3 %)
22 (11.6 %)
0.43 (0.36, 0.49) Street windows
  Informal Path or Shortcut 1 (0–1) †: 2.19 (0.90)
‡: 0.02 (0.10)
165 (86.9 %)
187 (98.4 %)
0.49 (0.42, 0.54) Informal path connecting to something else
  Hawkers/Shops 1 (0–2) †: 0.18 (0.67)
‡: 0.00 (0.02)
183 (96.1 %)
190 (100.0 %)
0.002 (-0.08, 0.08) Hawkers/shops on sidewalk/pedestrian zone
Negative Segment Subscales
  Sidewalk 7 (0–13) †: 2.64 (2.05)
‡: 2.24 (1.75)
35 (19.0 %)
20 (10.8 %)
0.65 (0.62, 0.68) Non-continuous sidewalk, trip hazards, obstructions, cars blocking walkway, slope, gates, driveways
  Positive Segment 27 (0–45) †: 20.16 (6.05)
‡: 18.81 (4.70)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.73 (0.69, 0.76) Sum of the positive segment subscales
  Negative Segment 7 (0–13) †: 2.64 (2.05)
‡: 2.25 (1.75)
36 (19.7 %)
27 (14.4 %)
0.71 (0.68, 0.74) Sum of the negative segment subscales
  Overall Segment 34 †: 17.50 (7.02)
‡: 16.54 (5.95)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.77 (0.74, 0.80) Positive Segment - Negative Segment
Overall Valence and Grand Scores
  Overall Positive 102 (0-210) †: 9.45 (5.16)
‡: 8.71 (4.55)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.64 (0.57, 0.70) Positive DLU, positive streetscape, positive aesthetics/social, positive segment (mean of all segments), positive crossing (mean of all segments).
  Overall Negative 16 (0–22) †: 1.31 (1.23)
‡: 1.25 (1.18)
37 (18.8 %)
27 (13.8 %)
0.48 (0.39, 0.57) Negative DLU, negative aesthetics/social, negative segment (mean of all segments), negative crossing (mean of all crossings).
  Overall Grand Score 118 †: 19.65 (12.47)
‡: 18.21 (11.17)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.91 (0.88, 0.93) Overall Positive - Overall Negative
Cross-Domain Subscales
  Pedestrian Infrastructure 13 (0–27) †: 8.52 (2.43)
‡: 7.48 (2.41)
0 (0.0 %)
2 (1.1 %)
0.65 (0.55–0.72) Trail, pedestrian zone, sidewalk presence/width, buffer, shortcut, mid-segment crossing, pedestrian bridge, air-conditioned place to walk, low lights, overpass, crosswalk, refuge island
  Pedestrian Design 13 (0–21) †: 10.06 (4.01)
‡: 8.76 (4.00)
0 (0.0 %)
0 (0.0 %)
0.74 (0.67–0.80) Open-air market, trash cans, benches, kiosks, hawkers and shops, setback, visibility, pedestrian walk signals, push buttons, countdown signals, ramps, crossing aids
  Bicycle Facilities 9 (0–11) †: 0.83 (1.32)
‡: 0.77 (1.19)
102 (58.0 %)
97 (55.4 %)
0.80 (0.74–0.85) Bike racks, docking stations, lockers, bike lane, bike lane quality, signs, bike signal, bike box, bike lane perpendicular to the crossing
  1. a: Cul-de-sac/Dead-end variables were excluded due to low frequency
  2. †: In-country, online observer
  3. ‡: Remote, online observer