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Table 1 General characteristics of studies included in the systematic review

From: A systematic review of tools designed for teacher proxy-report of children’s physical literacy or constituting elements

Instrument General construct assessed APLF domain(s) assessed (total no) Citation Targeted age group/Grades Sample population/ Country Sample size (Mean age, SD) Available translation Completion time (minutes/seconds) Recall period All subscale(s) of the tool (number of items)/Total item no Response options Psychometric properties evaluated (statistical tests utilized)
Single Domain Measures
 Motor Observation Questionnaire for Teachers (MOQ-T) Fine, gross, and perceptual motor behaviour Physical (1) Schoemaker et al. [45] 5–11 years Children in three rehabilitation centres and the general population in Netherlands 182 children. 91 children referred for motor problems to a rehabilitation centre (Mean age 7.7, SD 1.5) and 91 comparison children (Mean age 7.6, SD 1.5). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified English NS NS General Motor functioning and Handwriting/fine motor control. 18 items Four-point scale (1 = “never true”; 4 = “always true”) Criterion validity (ROC curve and Spearman correlations); Convergent validity (Spearman correlations); and Discriminant validity (ANOVA)
Fine, gross, and perceptual motor behaviour Physical (1) Giofrè et al. [46] 5–11 years Children in Grades 2–5 in Northern Italian schools 363 children. 102 children in Grade 2 (Mean age 92.82 months, SD 3.49), 80 in Grade 3 (Mean age 105.09 months, SD 3.76), 81 in Grade 4 (Mean age 116.58 months, SD 4.81), and 100 in Grade 5 (Mean age 128.79 months, SD 3.44). Proxy reporting 1 to 3 teachers per child; total teacher number not specified Italian NS NS General Motor functioning and Handwriting/fine motor control. 18 items Four-point scale (1 = “never true”; 4 = “always true”) Structural validity (EFA using principal axis factor method with a Promax oblique rotation and CFA); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha)
Fine, gross, and perceptual motor behaviour Physical (1) Asunta et al. [47] 6–9 years Children in pre- and elementary schools in central Finland and five other Finnish territories Sample 1: 193 children (Mean age 9 years 5 months, NR) Sample 2: 850 children (Mean age 7 years 7 months, NR). Proxy-reporting by 27 teachers (Sample 1) Finnish 3.3 min NS General Motor functioning and Handwriting/fine motor control. 18 items Four-point scale (1 = “never true”; 4 = “always true”) Structural validity (PCA with varimax rotation and CFA using the maximum likelihood robust estimation method); Criterion validity (ROC curve and Spearman’s rho); Known-groups validity (Mann Whitney); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha)
Fine, gross, and perceptual motor behaviour Physical (1) Nowak, Schoemaker [48] 5–11 years Children in two primary schools Wroclaw, Poland 348 children (Mean age 8.1, SD 1.9), in addition to 31 children referred from local private therapy centres (Mean age 7.8, SD 2.1). Proxy reporting by two physical education teachers Polish NS NS General Motor functioning and Handwriting/fine motor control. 18 items Four-point scale (1 = “never true”; 4 = “always true”) Structural validity (PCA with varimax rotation); Criterion validity (Spearman’s rank correlations and ROC curve); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha)
 Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2 Checklist (MABC-2 Checklist) Motor skills Physical (1) Schoemaker et al. [49] 5–11 years Children in a Dutch sample in Netherlands 383 children (Mean age 6 years 9 months, NR).
Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified. Each teacher rated five children
Dutch NS NS Gross motor coordination skills (5), Ball skills (5), Recreation skills (5), fine motor skill (5), rhythmic skills (5), dynamic balance (5). 30 items (motor part) Four-point scale (0 = “very well”; 3 = “not close”) Structural validity (PCA with Varimax rotation); Criterion validity (Spearman rank order correlation); Convergent validity (Spearman rank order correlation); Discriminant validity (logistic regression, ROC curve, ANOVA, t-test); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha)
Motor skills Physical (1) Kita et al. [50] 5–11 years Children from 16 elementary schools in a community population in Japan 3852 children. Proxy reporting: 484 valid responses following data cleaning (NR, NR). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified. Japanese NS NS Gross motor coordination skills (5), Ball skills (5), Recreation skills (5), fine motor skill (5), rhythmic skills (5), dynamic balance (5). 30 items (motor part) Four-point scale (0 = “very well”; 3 = “not true”) Structural validity (confirmatory factor analysis); Cross-cultural validity (one-way ANOVA); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha)
Motor skills Physical (1) Capistrano et al. [51] 5–11 years School children in Florianópolis, Brazil 40 children (Mean age 8.93 years, SD 1.22 for boys and 9.04 years, SD 1.00 for girls). Proxy reporting by 16 teachers (14 classroom teachers and 2 physical education teachers) Portuguese NS NS Gross motor coordination skills (5), Ball skills (5), Recreation skills (5), fine motor skill (5), rhythmic skills (5), dynamic balance (5). 30 items (motor part) Four-point scale (0 = “Not at all” (0); 1 = “some”; 3 = “high”) Criterion validity (one-way ANOVA); Convergent validity (Spearman correlation)
Motor skills Physical (1) De Milander et al. [52] 5–11 years Children in seven mainstream schools in Free State province, South Africa 323 children (Mean age 6 years 8 months, SD 0.4). Proxy reporting by 28 teachers English NS Six months Gross motor coordination skills (5), Ball skills (5), Recreation skills (5), fine motor skill (5), rhythmic skills (5), dynamic balance (5). 30 items (motor part) Four-point scale (0 = “very well”; 1 = “just ok”; 2 = “almost” and 3 = “not close”) Criterion validity (Kappa coefficient k-)
 Pictorial Scale of Perceived Water Competence (PSPWC) Water skills Physical (1) De Pasquale et al. [53] 4–8 years Children in four swim centres in the western part of Melbourne, Australia 51 children (Mean age 6.64 years, SD 1.49). 15 swim teachers (Mean age 27.30, SD 8.44) recruited for content validity English 5 min for parents and 20 min for children. NS for teachers NS 17 swimming scenarios varying in skill complexity. Each scenario is represented by three cartoon images 1–3 Likert scale (1 = “not able to do the skill”; 2 = “skill in progress”; 3 = “able to do the skill” Content validity
 Reiss Motivation Profile for children (Child RMP) Intrinsic motivation Psychological (1) Weems et al. [54] 4–11 years Children in elementary schools in the United States 333 children (NR, NR). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified English 10 min NS Competence (8), Social Contact (8), Character (8), Competition (8), Order (8), Physical Activity (8), Acceptance (8), Popularity (8), Anxiety (8), Curiosity (8). 80 items Five-point scale (0 = “strongly disagree”; 1 = “disagree”; 2 = “neutral”; 3 = “agree”; 4 = “strongly agree”) Structural validity (CFA); Discriminant validity (ANOVA); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha)
 Teacher’s Self-concept Evaluation Scale Self-concept Psychological (1) Mocke et al. [55] 10–13 years Children from a primary school in Western Cape, South Africa 114 children (Mean age 12.3, NR). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified NS NS NS Personal Self-concept, School and Academic Self-concept, Physical Self-concept, Social Self-concept, General self-concept. NR 5-point scale; response options not specified Convergent validity (correlation); Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha)
 Teen Risk Screen checklist (TRS) Fundamental motor skills Physical (1) Kidd, Africa [56] NS Girls in one primary school in Stellenbosch region, South Africa 125 children (Mean age 12.12, SD 1.1). Proxy reporting by seven classroom teachers English 30–40 min for a group of 20 children NS Posture and stability-Axial movement (7), Posture and stability Dynamic movement (5), Locomotor skills-single skills (5), Locomotor skills-combination (3), Manipulative skills-sending away (3), Manipulative skills-possession (2) and Manipulative skills-gaining possession (1). 26 items Three-point scale (0 = “cannot perform according to guidelines”; 1 = “can perform but not according to guidelines”; 2 = “can perform skill”) Structural validity (CFA); Reliability – 2-weeks test-retest (Pearson correlations and ICC, Kappa for one subscale); and Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha)
Dual-Domain Measures
 Brief Behaviour Rating Scale (BBRS) Social behaviour Psychological, Social (2) Gresham et al. [57] NS Children in the Albuquerque, New Mexico, school district, United States 200 children (Mean age 7.2, SD 1.0). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified English 15 s per item, 3 min for entire scale NS Assertion (3); Cooperation (4); Self-Control (1); Hyperactivity (2), Externalizing (1); Academic Competence (1). 12 items NS Convergent validity (Pearson correlations); Reliability – 3 months test-retest (correlation); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha)
 Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA) Social and emotional competence Psychological, Social (2) Nickerson, Fishman [58] Grades K - 8 NS Number of children unspecified. Proxy-reporting by 94 teachers NS 4–8 min per child Four weeks Optimistic Thinking (7); Self-Management (11); Goal-Directed Behaviour (10); Self-Awareness (7); Social- Awareness (9); Personal Responsibility (10); Decision Making (8); Relationship Skills (10). 72 items Five-point scale (0 = “Occasionally”; 1 = “Never” 2 = “Rarely”; 3 = “Frequently”; 4 = “Very Frequently”) Convergent validity (Pearson product moment correlations); and Divergent validity (Pearson product moment correlations)
Social and emotional competence Psychological, Social (2) Doromal et al. [59] Grades K - 8 Children in an urban, Southeastern school district
in the United States
313 children (Mean age 5.60 years, SD 0.30). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified English NS NS Self-Awareness
(7); Self-Management (11); Social Awareness (9); Decision-Making (8); Relationship Skills (10). 45 items
Five-point scale (0 = “Occasionally”; 1 = “Never” 2 = “Rarely”; 3 = “Frequently”; 4 = “Very Frequently”) Structural validity (CFA); Convergent validity (correlations); and Discriminant validity (correlations)
 Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC) Emotion regulation Psychological, Social (2) Molina et al. [60] NS Children in kindergarten and elementary schools in several regions in Italy 910 children (Mean age 5.77 years, SD 2.26). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified Italian NS NS Emotion Regulation (8); Lability/Negativity (15). 24 items. Four-point scale (1 = “Almost always”; 4 = “Never”) Structural validity (EFA and CFA); Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha)
 Multisource Assessment of Social Competence Scale (MASCS) Social competence Psychological, Social (2) Junttila et al. [61] Grades K - 12 Children in 15 elementary schools in southern Finland, Finland Cohort 1: 446 mainstream children (Mean age 10
years 5 months, SD 6.1 months) and 61 special education
children (Mean age 11 years 6 months, SD 13.4 months)
Cohort 2: 445 mainstream children (Mean age 10 years 2 months, SD 6.4 months) and 33 special education children (Mean age 10 years 10 months; SD 9.1 months). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified
Finnish NS NS Cooperating skills (5), Empathy (3), Impulsivity (3), and
Disruptiveness (4). 16 items
Four-point scale (1 = “never”; 2 = “rarely”; 3 = “frequently”; 4 = “very frequently”) Structural validity (CFA); Convergent validity (correlations); Known-groups validity (t-tests); and
Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha)
 Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children-Teacher (PSPCSA-T) Perceived competence Physical, Social (2) Harter, Pike [62] 4–7 years. One version for pre- schoolers and
kindergartners (4–5 years) and another for first and second graders (6–7 years)
NS 77 pre-schoolers, 28 kindergartners, and 38 first and second graders (NR, NR). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified English NS NS Cognitive competence (6), Physical competence (6), and Peer acceptance (6). 18 items Four-point scale (“really true”; “pretty true”; “only sort of true”; and “not very true”) Convergent validity (correlations)
Perceived competence Physical, Social (2) Strein, Simonson [63] 4–7 years. One version for pre- schoolers and kindergartners (4–5 years) and another for first and second graders (6–7 years) Children in the United States 227 kindergarten students (NR, NR). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified English NS NS Cognitive competence (6), Physical competence (6), and Peer acceptance (6). 18 items Four-point scale (“really true”; “pretty true”; “only sort of true”; and “not very true”) Convergent validity (Pearson’s correlations); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha)
Perceived competence Physical, Social (2) Garrison et al. [64] 4–7 years. One version for pre- schoolers and kindergartners (4–5 years) and another for first and second graders (6–7 years) Children in New England, United States 83 children (NR, NR). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified English NS NS Cognitive competence (6), Physical competence (6), and Peer acceptance (6). 18 items NS Convergent validity (correlations)
 Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scale, Teacher rating form (SEARS-T) Social and emotional competence Psychological, Social (2) Merrell et al. [65] Grades K - 12 Children and adolescents in 23 Public and private schools in 10 states in the United States 1673 children and adolescents (NR, NR). Proxy-reporting by 418 teachers (average four student rating per teacher) English 12–18 min (average 15 min) Six months Responsibility (10), Social competence (12), Self-regulation (13), and Empathy (6). 41 items Four-point scale (0 = “never true”; 1 = “sometimes true”; 2 = “often true”; and 3 = “always/almost always true”) Structural validity (EFA using principle axis factor with Oblimin oblique rotation, CFA using maximum likelihood estimation); Convergent validity (Bivariate Pearson product-moment correlations); Known-groups validity (independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha)
Social and emotional competence Psychological, Social (2) Romer, Merrell [66] Grades K - 12 Children in two elementary schools in Washington, United States 118 children in Grades K - 5 (NR, NR). Proxy-reporting by 30 teachers (four student ratings per teacher) English NS Six months Responsibility (10), Social competence (12), Self-regulation (13), and Empathy (6). 41 items Four-point scale (0 = “never true”; 1 = “sometimes true”; 2 = “often true”; and 3 = “always/almost always true”) Test-retest reliability (Pearson product-moment correlations)
Social and emotional competence Psychological, Social (2) Figueiredo et al. [67] Grades K - 12 Children in schools in the Norther region of Portugal 235 children (116 boys and 119 girls) aged between 5 and 10 years (M = 7.51, SD = 1.63). Proxy reporting by 46 teachers. Portuguese NS Six months Responsibility (10), Social competence (12), Self-regulation (13), and Empathy (6). 41 items Four-point scale (0 = “never true”; 1 = “sometimes true”; 2 = “often true”; and 3 = “always/almost Structural validity (CFA); Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha); Convergent validity (Pearson’s correlation); and Known-groups validity (t-test)
 Social Skills Improvement System Social Emotional Learning Edition Rating Forms (SSIS SEL RF) – Teacher version Social emotional competence Psychological, Social (2) Frank Gresham et al. [68] 3–18 years Children in the United States 200 children (NR, NR). Proxy reporting by 146 elementary teachers English NS NS Self-Awareness, Self-Management, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills, Responsible Decision-Making, and Academic Competence. 58 items. Four-point Likert scale (0 = “Never”; 1 = “Sometime”; 2 = “Often”; and 3 = “Always”) Structural validity (CFA); test-retest reliability (), Internal consistency; Interrater reliability
 Teacher-Child Rating Scale (T-CRS) Social and emotional competence Psychological, Social (2) Hightower et al. [69] NS NS 1379 children. Proxy reporting by 200 teachers
Study 1
353 children from 67 K-3 classes. Each teacher rated
about 6 children. Proxy reporting by 200 teachers
Study 2
1026 K-6 children
NS NS NS Acting out (6), Shy-anxious (6), Learning (6), Reaction to Limits/Frustration tolerance (6), Assertive social skills (6), and Good student/task orientation (6). 36 items NS Structural validity (PCA with varimax and oblique rotations); Convergent validity (correlations); Known-groups validity (one-way MANOVA); Reliability (test-retest); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha)
 Teacher Questionnaire (TQ) Self-concept Psychological, Social (2) Jensen et al. [70] NS Children in third grade in a school in southern California, United States 62 children. Proxy reporting by three teachers. English NS NS Relationship with peers I (1), Relationship with peers II (1), Intellectual self-image (1), Helpfulness (2), Physiological self-image (2), Adult acceptance (2), Emotional self (2), and Tasks undertaken (1). 12 items “Present” or “Absent”; score of two or more to be socially desirable Convergent validity (Phi coefficients)
 Teacher Rating of  Social Efficacy Social behaviour Social, Cognitive (2) Wheeler, Ladd [71] Grades 3–5 Children in elementary school in New York State and Indiana, United States 138 children in New York State and 107 children in Indiana. Proxy reporting by teacher, number not specified English NS NS Conflict (6), Non-conflict (5). 11 items Four-point scale (HARD!, hard, easy, EASY!) Structural validity (PCA); Convergent validity (Correlations); Test-retest reliability (correlation); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha)
 Winnetka Scale for Rating School Behaviour School behaviour Psychological, Social (2) Van Alstyne [72] Nursery to Grade 6 Children in Winnetka Public Schools, Emergency Nursery Schools in Chicago and rural schools in Kansas, United States 1200 children. Proxy reporting by their teachers, no not specified. Eight teachers for reliability English NS 2 months or more Cooperation, Social Consciousness, Emotional Adjustment, Leadership, and Responsibility. 30 situations Ratings weighted from zero to ten Structural validity (Multiple factor analysis using Thurstone’s method); Convergent validity (correlations); and Test-retest reliability (Pearson’s correlations)
School behaviour Psychological, Social (2) Leton et al. [73] NS NS 250 pupils in Grade 2 – Grade 6. Proxy reporting by ten teachers (nine females and one male) English NS NS 13 situations: Taking turns; Cooperation on group projects; Sacrifice for group; Application to social tasks; Emotional tone; Independence of adult approval; Reaction to failure; Self-confidence; Direction of group tasks; Group leadership; Continuing with academic tasks; Self-reliance; Organization of work Ratings weighted from zero to ten Structural validity (PCA with varimax rotation); Known-groups validity (mean differences)
Tri-Domain Measures
 Children Activity Scales for Teachers (CHAS-T) Motor behaviour Physical, Psychological, Cognitive (3) Rosenblum [74] 4–8 years Israeli children Sample 1: 355 children. Proxy reporting by 14 teachers
Sample 2: Two groups of 30 children each (TD and DCD)
Originally in Hebrew but translated to English/ Israel 5–10 min per child NS Gross Motor Skills (6), Fine Motor Skills (5), and Organization in Space and Time (10). 21 items Five- point scale (5 = “very well”; 1 = “less adequately”) Content and face validity; Structural validity (PCA with varimax rotation); Criterion validity (correlations); Convergent validity (correlations); Discriminant validity (discriminant analyses); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha)
 Gross Motor Rating Scale (GMRS) Gross motor ability Physical, Psychological, Cognitive (3) Netelenbos [75] NS Children in schools in a suburban region of a Dutch city in Netherlands Study 1: 132 children (Mean age 5.3 years, SD 15.1 months). Proxy-reporting by their teachers, number not specified.
Study 2: 94 children (Mean age 5.2 years, SD 12.5 months)
Study 3: 43 children (Mean age 6.7 years, SD 7.7 months)
English NS NS Gross Motor Skills (10); Physical qualities (7); Movement motivation (3). 20 items Five-point scale (1 = “poor”; 2 = “moderate”; 3 = “adequate”; 4 = “good” and 5 = “excellent”) Structural validity (PCA); Criterion validity (Pearson correlation); Convergent validity (correlations); Reliability (interrater [correlations], test-retest [correlations]); Internal Consistency (Cronbach’s alpha)
 Harter’s Teacher’s Rating Scale of Child’s Actual Behaviour (TRS) Perceived competence Physical, Social, Cognitive (3) Cole et al. [76] NS Children in one of nine public schools in a midsize, midwestern school district in United States 897 children (Mean age 8.9, SD 0.5 for third graders and Mean age 11.9, SD 0.5 for sixth graders). Proxy-reporting by 49 teachers English NS NS Scholastic Competence (3), Social Acceptance (3), Athletic Competence (3), Physical Appearance (3), and Behavioural Conduct (3). 15 items. Four-point scale. Two-step process. Teacher selects one of two statements that describes the child. Teacher indicates whether their choice is “Sort of true” or “Really true” about the child Convergent validity (Inter-battery factor analysis)
Perceived competence Physical, Social, Cognitive (3) Cole et al. [77] NS Children in nine public schools in a mid-size, midwestern school district in United States 724 children (NR, NR). Proxy reporting by 49 teachers English NS NS Scholastic Competence (3), Social Acceptance (3), Athletic Competence (3), Physical Appearance (3), and Behavioural Conduct (3). 15 items. Four-point scale. Two-step process. Teacher selects one of two statements that describes the child. Teacher indicates whether their choice is “Sort of true” or “Really true” about the child Structural validity (CFA); Convergent validity and Discriminant validity (Multigroup-Multitrait- multimethod confirmatory factor analysis)
Perceived competence Physical, Social, Cognitive (3) Cole et al. [78] NS Children in nine elementary schools and two middle schools in the United States 1228 children and adolescents (Mean age 8.9 years, SD 0.5 for third graders and 11.9 years, SD 0.5 for sixth graders). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified English NS NS Scholastic Competence (3), Social Acceptance (3), Athletic Competence (3), Physical Appearance (3), and Behavioural Conduct (3). 15 items. Four-point scale. Two-step process. Teacher selects one of two statements that describes the child. Teacher indicates whether their choice is “Sort of true” or “Really true” about the child Convergent validity and Discriminant validity
(Multitrait-multimethod analysis)
 Health Resources Inventory (HRI) Personal and social competence Psychological, Social, Cognitive (3) Gesten [79] Primary grade children Children in 12 schools (five in the Rochester City School District and seven in two adjacent county districts) in United States 592 children (NR, NR).
Proxy-reporting by 65 teachers
English NS NS Good student (10), Gutsy (7), Peer Sociability (10), Rules (7), and Frustration Tolerance (20). 54 items Five-point scale (1 = “Not at all”; 5 = “Very well”) Structural validity (PCA with varimax and oblique rotation); Convergent validity (correlations); Discriminant validity (t-test); Known-groups validity (ANOVA); Test-retest reliability (reliability coefficients)
 Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire Teacher’s version – Short Form (QACSE-P-SF) Social and emotional competencies Psychological, Social, Cognitive (3) Coelho et al. [80] Grades 4–9 Children in five public schools in the Lisbon District of Portugal 657 children (Mean age 11.3 years, SD 1.8). Proxy reporting by 39 teachers Portuguese Five minutes per child NS Social Awareness (5), Self-control (5), Social Isolation (5), Social Anxiety (5), Responsible Decision Making (5), Relationship Skills (5). 30 items Four-point scale (A = “never”; B = “sometimes”; C = “frequently”; D = “always”) Structural validity (PCA with Varimax rotation - Kaiser normalization; CFA using Maximum Likelihood estimation); Known-groups validity (t-tests, one-way ANOVA); Test-retest reliability (correlations); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha)
 Social Skills Rating Scale (SSRS-T) Social skills Psychological, Social, Cognitive (3) Clark et al. [81] NS Children in two schools in a metropolitan district in the United States 194 children (Mean age 9 years 5 months, NR). Proxy-reporting by 26 teachers (five girls and five boys rating per teacher) English NS NS Social initiation (15), Academic performance (13), Cooperation (17), and Peer reinforcement (7). 52 items (frequency dimension) Five-point scale (1 = “never true”; 5 = “frequently”) Structural validity (PCA); Convergent validity (Correlations); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha)
Social skills Psychological, Social, Cognitive (3) Frank M Gresham et al. [82] NS Children in in a school district in south eastern Louisiana, United States 250 children (NR, NR). Proxy reporting by 43 black and 82 white regular classroom teachers English NS NS 50 items (frequency dimension) Response option for frequency (2 = “often true”; 1 = “sometimes true”; 0 = “never true”) Structural validity (PCA); Known-groups validity (); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha)
Social skills Psychological, Social, Cognitive (3) Elliott et al. [83] NS Children in elementary schools in Louisiana, United States 60 children (NR, NR). Proxy reporting by six teachers English NS NS 50 items. Two dimensions (frequency and importance) of social behaviour Response option for frequency dimension same as above. Importance (2 = “critical for success in my classroom”; 1 = “important for success in my classroom”; and 0 = “unimportant for success in my classroom”) Divergent validity (Correlations); Known-groups validity (MANOVA); Reliability (test-retest [reliability coefficients], interrater [correlations]); and Internal Consistency (Cronbach’s alpha)
 Teacher Estimation of Activity Form (TEAF) Children’s motor ability, participation and self-efficacy towards physical activity Physical, Psychological, Cognitive (3) Faught et al. [17] NS Children in 15 schools from the District School Board of Niagara in Ontario, Canada 502 children (NR, NR). Proxy reporting, total teacher number unspecified English 10 min per child NS Gross motor ability. 10 items Five-point scale (1 = “well below average”; 2 = “somewhat below average”; 3 = “average”; 4= “somewhat above average”; and 5 = “well above average”) Structural validity (factor analysis); Criterion validity (ROC curve); Convergent validity (correlations); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha)
Children’s motor ability, participation and self-efficacy towards physical activity Physical, Psychological, Cognitive (3) Sara Rosenblum, Engel-Yeger [84] NS Children in mainstream public schools in Northern Israel 123 children, 68 TD and 55 DCD (NR, NR). Proxy- reporting by 6 physical education teachers Hebrew NS NS Gross motor ability. 10 items Five-point scale (1 = “well below average”; 2 = “somewhat below average”; 3 = “average”; 4 = “somewhat above average”; and 5 = “well above average”) Structural validity (factor analysis); Criterion validity (Pearson’s correlations); Known-groups validity (t-test, MANOVA, discriminant analysis); and Internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha)
  1. ANOVA analysis of variance, CFA confirmatory factor analysis, DCD developmental coordination disorder, EFA exploratory factor analysis, ICC Intraclass correlation coefficient, MANOVA multivariate analysis of variance, NR not reported, NS not specified, PCA principal component analysis, ROC receiver operator characteristic, SD standard deviation, TD typically developing