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Table 2 Working definitions of key concepts within the framework

From: A modified Delphi study to enhance and gain international consensus on the Physical Activity Messaging Framework (PAMF) and Checklist (PAMC)

Concept Working definition Example(s)
Concepts relating to Section 1: Who, when, what, how and why?
Target audience The intended recipient(s) of the message Older adults, individuals working from home
Context [24] The time of year and the geographical, epidemiological, socio-cultural, socio-economic, ethical, legal and political context at the time of messaging During the winter, at new year, during a global pandemic
Outcomes [25] Changes expected as a result of messaging Awareness, understanding, motivation, physical activity behaviour
Pathway [25] The sequential process from the delivery of the message through to outcome. In other words, how a message works. This may encompass multiple mechanisms or processes. Education, persuasion, encouraging habit formation, targeting beliefs about capabilities
Formative research/evaluation [26] Evaluation or research used to help inform message development and to assess whether the message is appropriate and acceptable before it is implemented. Focus groups with target population to investigate message salience, relevant and importance
Co-production (Smith B, Williams O, Bone L. Co-producing research in the sport, physical activity, and exercise sciences: A resource to guide co-production for researchers. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health. Forthcoming) Bringing together citizens with those working in research, policy and industry, and/or practice in an attempt to form equitable partnerships throughout message development Involving individuals from the target audience in message development
Concepts relating to Section 2: Message content
‘What to do’ information Information regarding the amount or type of physical activity that is recommended 150 min of moderate physical activity per week, 10,000 steps per day, a mixture of aerobic and strength activity
‘Why to do it’ information Information regarding benefits (or consequences) of physical activity (or inactivity) Physical health, mental health, appearance, environment
‘How to do it’ information Information providing guidance on how to be more active or signposting to opportunities for physical activity Guidance on when to be active, where to be active or who to be active with
Use of gain- or loss- framing [27] The use of framing a message to highlight either the benefits of taking part in physical activity (gain-framed) or the consequences of not taking part (loss-framed) Gain-framed: “Walking regularly can make you happier”
Loss-framed: “Not walking regularly can increase your risk of depression”
Tailoring [28] Information based on individual user data Specific feedback on pre-established goals such as step counts
Targeting [28] Information designed to be relevant to a specific group Information relevant to inactive individuals or people with Diabetes
Personalisation [28] The use of static, user-specific information in a message Messages involving name or home address
Language and choice of words The dialect(s) and selection of specific wording used in the message English, Spanish, use of the slang, use of lay-audience friendly language
Message tone The tone adopted by the message Threatening, persuasive, encouraging
Concepts relating to Section 3: Message format and delivery
Text (message format) The use of words to convey information in a message Text on posters or social media posts
Images or video (message format) The use of images and videos to convey information in a message Images or footage of individuals being active
Audio (message format) The use of audio to convey information in a message Music, voiceovers, sound effects
Media, mode or channel of delivery The type of media through which the message is being communicated Emails, posters, social media posts, radio/television adverts
Message volume or length The volume or the length of the message relating to the number of words in a message or the amount of time it takes to listen to a message 100 words, 30 s
Provider or source The provider or source of the message Doctor, journalist, reporter, friends/family
Setting The setting in which the message will be received by the intended recipient Doctor’s waiting room, home, work
Frequency, time of day and duration How often the message is delivered, at what time, and for how long Emails sent in the morning 3 times a week for 4 weeks