Skip to main content

Table 3 Meeting 24-h movement behavior guidelines through early childhood and mental wellbeing (depression and anxiety) and adaptive skills (resilience) at five years (n = 528)

From: Adherence to 24-h movement behavior guidelines and psychosocial functioning in young children: a longitudinal analysis

  n N (%) who met guideline Depression at 5 years of age Anxiety at 5 years of age Resilience at 5 years of age
Standardised mean difference (95% CI)a for those who met the guideline compared to those who did not
Physical activity: ≥ 180 min/day LMVPAb
 At 1 year of age 315 122 (38.7) -0.28 (-0.51, -0.06) -0.23 (-0.47, 0.00) 0.23 (-0.01, 0.46)
Physical activity: ≥ 180 min/day LMVPA including 60 min energetic playc
 At 3.5 years of age 305 187 (61.3) -0.04 (-0.28, 0.20) -0.04 (-0.28, 0.20) 0.05 (-0.17, 0.28)
 At 5 years of age 382 310 (81.2) -0.11 (-0.38, 0.16) -0.20 (-0.46, 0.06) 0.21 (-0.04, 0.47)
 At both 3.5 and 5 years of age 266 144 (54.1) -0.12 (-0.37, 0.13) -0.15 (-0.40, 0.10) 0.17 (-0.07, 0.40)
Sedentary time: no screen time or no more than 60 min/dayd
 At 1 year of age 305 191 (62.6) -0.15 (-0.38, 0.08) -0.30 (-0.54, -0.06) 0.12 (-0.11, 0.36)
 At 2 years of age 220 35 (15.9) -0.29 (-0.66, 0.07) -0.17 (-0.55, 0.21) 0.13 (-0.25, 0.52)
 At 5 years of age 377 151 (40.1) -0.34 (-0.56, -0.13) -0.13 (-0.34, 0.09) 0.18 (-0.03, 0.39)
 At 2 or more time points 311 83 (26.7) -0.43 (-0.68, -0.18) -0.36 (-0.62, -0.09) 0.24 (-0.02, 0.50)
Sedentary time: not being restrained for > 60 min at a timee
 At 1 year of age 305 273 (89.5) -0.14 (-0.51, 0.22) 0.00 (-0.38, 0.39) 0.07 (-0.31, 0.44)
Sedentary time: no screen time or no > 60 min AND not being restrained for > 60 min at a time
 At 1 year of age 305 176 (57.7) -0.12 (-0.34, 0.11) -0.29 (-0.53, -0.06) 0.11 (-0.12, 0.34)
Sleep: 11 – 14 h or 10 – 13 h including napsf
 At 1 year of age 307 258 (84.0) -0.07 (-0.37, 0.23) -0.34 (-0.66, -0.02) 0.13 (-0.18, 0.43)
 At 5 years of age 370 325 (87.8) 0.18 (-0.14, 0.50) 0.00 (-0.31, 0.32) -0.12 (-0.43, 0.19)
Sleep: consistent sleep and wake timesg
 At 1 year of age 307 56 (18.2) -0.20 (-0.49, 0.07) -0.13 (-0.43, 0.17) 0.25 (-0.04, 0.54)
 At 2 years of age 254 67 (26.4) 0.11 (-0.17, 0.40) 0.13 (-0.16, 0.43) -0.06 (-0.36, 0.23)
 At 3.5 years of age 398 59 (19.8) 0.13 (-0.16, 0.43) 0.15 (-0.14, 0.44) -0.04 (-0.32, 0.24)
 At 5 years of age 370 84 (22.7) -0.21 (-0.46, 0.04) -0.08 (-0.32, 0.17) 0.08 (-0.16, 0.33)
 At 2 or more time points 380 58 (15.3) -0.14 (-0.43, 0.14) -0.11 (-0.40, 0.18) 0.04 (-0.24, 0.32)
Sleep: both sleep guidelines (duration and consistency)
 At 1 year of age 307 42 (13.7) -0.25 (-0.57, 0.07) -0.19 (-0.53, 0.16) 0.35 (0.03, 0.68)
 At 2 years of age 254 64 (25.2) 0.11 (-0.18, 0.40) 0.10 (-0.19, 0.40) -0.06 (-0.36, 0.24)
 At 3.5 years of age 298 56 (18.8) 0.22 (-0.08, 0.51) 0.21 (-0.09, 0.51) -0.11 (-0.40, 0.18)
 At 5 years of age 370 77 (20.8) -0.20 (-0.46, 0.05) -0.03 (-0.29, 0.22) 0.03 (-0.22, 0.29)
 At 2 or more time points 380 48 (12.6) -0.13 (-0.44, 0.17) 0.01 (-0.30, 0.33) -0.04 (-0.34, 0.26)
All three guidelines: ≥ 180 min/day LMVPA, no screen time or no more than 60 min, and 11 – 14 h or 10 – 13 h including napsh
 At 1 year of age 297 60 (20.2) -0.19 (-0.47, 0.09) -0.42 (-0.72, -0.12) 0.28 (-0.01, 0.57)
 At 2 years of age 218 33 (15.1) -0.23 (-0.60, 0.14) -0.13 (-0.52, 0.26) 0.09 (-0.31, 0.49)
 At 5 years of age 365 134 (36.7) -0.25 (-0.48, -0.02) -0.11 (-0.33, 0.11) 0.12 (-0.11, 0.34)
  1. aAssessed using the Behavioral Assessment System for children (BASC-2) [34]
  2. aMean difference (95% CI) estimated using regression models adjusted for randomised group, sex, maternal education, household deprivation, primiparous, and BMI z-score at 5 years of age, in units of standard deviations. Greater scores indicate higher levels of depression, anxiety, or resilience
  3. bProportions who met the first physical activity guideline at 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age were too high to allow estimation of mean differences (94.1, 97.1, and 98.4%, respectively)
  4. cSecond physical activity guideline applies only to children aged 3 – 5 years
  5. dNo screen time (1 – 2 years) or 60 min maximum screen time (3 – 5 years). Not measured at 3.5 years
  6. eNot being restrained in a car seat or stroller for > 60 min at a time, on at least 3 days a week (1 – 2 years). The proportion who met this guideline at 2 years of age was too high to allow estimation of mean differences (96.8%). Not measured at 3.5 years
  7. f11 – 14 h (1 – 2 years) or 10 – 13 h (3 – 5 years). The proportion who met this guideline at 2 and 3.5 years of age and at 2 or more time points was too high to allow estimation of mean differences (92.9%, 95.6%, and 92.6% respectively)
  8. gHaving a consistent sleep time or consistent wake time defined as within-person standard deviation of < 30 min
  9. hThe proportion who met this guideline at two or more time points was too low to allow estimation of mean differences (9.7%)
  10. Bold figures denote P < 0.05