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Table 4 Meeting 24-h movement behavior guidelines through early childhood and self-regulation at five years (n = 528)

From: Adherence to 24-h movement behavior guidelines and psychosocial functioning in young children: a longitudinal analysis

  n N (%) who met guideline Attentional problems at 5 years of age Hyperactivity at 5 years of age Emotional self-control at 5 years of age Executive functioning at 5 years of age
Standardised mean difference (95% CI)a for those who met the guideline compared to those who did not
Physical activity: ≥ 180 min/day LMVPAb
 At 1 year of age 315 122 (38.7) -0.18 (-0.40, 0.04) -0.11 (-0.35, 0.12) 0.18 (-0.03, 0.40) 0.10 (-0.12, 0.33)
Physical activity: ≥ 180 min/day LMVPA including 60 min energetic playc
 At 3.5 years of age 305 187 (61.3) 0.00 (-0.21, 0.20) 0.16 (-0.07, 0.39) 0.02 (-0.21, 0.24) -0.17 (-0.39, 0.06)
 At 5 years of age 382 310 (81.2) -0.09 (-0.34, 0.15) 0.15 (-0.11, 0.41) 0.05 (-0.20, 0.31) 0.02 (-0.23, 0.27)
 At both 3.5 and 5 years of age 266 144 (54.1) 0.01 (-0.21, 0.22) 0.22 (-0.01, 0.46) 0.04 (-0.19, 0.26) -0.11 (-0.34, 0.12)
Sedentary time: no screen time or no > 60 minutesd
 At 1 year of age 305 191 (62.6) -0.09 (-0.31, 0.13) -0.15 (-0.38, 0.09) 0.12 (-0.09, 0.34) 0.07 (-0.15, 0.30)
 At 2 years of age 220 35 (15.9) -0.04 (-0.39, 0.31) 0.00 (-0.37, 0.37) 0.12 (-0.22, 0.47) 0.13 (-0.25, 0.50)
 At 5 years of age 377 151 (40.1) -0.14 (-0.34, 0.06) -0.07 (-0.28, 0.15) 0.17 (-0.03, 0.38) 0.14 (-0.07, 0.35)
 At 2 or more time points 311 83 (26.7) -0.11 (-0.35, 0.14) -0.26 (-0.52, -0.01) 0.35 (0.11, 0.59) 0.28 (0.03, 0.53)
Sedentary time: not being restrained for > 60 min at a timee
 At 1 year of age 305 273 (89.5) -0.25 (-0.60, 0.09) -0.37 (-0.74, -0.00) 0.14 (-0.21, 0.48) 0.19 (-0.17, 0.55)
Sedentary time: no screen time or no > 60 min AND not being restrained for > 60 min at a time  
 At 1 year of age 305 176 (57.7) -0.12 (-0.34, 0.09) -0.15 (-0.38, 0.08) 0.10 (-0.11, 0.31) 0.05 (-0.17, 0.28)
Sleep: 11 – 14 h or 10 – 13 h including napsf
 At 1 year of age 307 258 (84.0) -0.01 (-0.30, 0.28) -0.05 (-0.36, 0.26) 0.07 (-0.21, 0.35) 0.09 (-0.21, 0.39)
 At 5 years of age 370 325 (87.8) 0.14 (-0.15, 0.44) 0.04 (-0.28, 0.35) -0.03 (-0.34, 0.28) -0.12 (-0.42, 0.18)
Sleep: consistent sleep and wake timesg
 At 1 year of age 307 56 (18.2) -0.19 (-0.47, 0.08) -0.04 (-0.33, 0.25) 0.21 (-0.06, 0.48) 0.17 (-0.11, 0.45)
 At 2 years of age 254 67 (26.4) 0.09 (-0.18, 0.36) 0.01 (-0.28, 0.30) -0.12 (-0.40, 0.15) -0.09 (-0.38, 0.20)
 At 3.5 years of age 398 59 (19.8) -0.04 (-0.30, 0.21) 0.07 (-0.21, 0.34) -0.14 (-0.41, 0.14) 0.02 (-0.26, 0.29)
 At 5 years of age 370 84 (22.7) -0.18 (-0.41, 0.05) -0.19 (-0.43, 0.06) 0.16 (-0.08, 0.40) 0.13 (-0.10, 0.37)
 At 2 or more time points 380 58 (15.3) -0.19 (-0.46, 0.07) -0.10 (-0.38, 0.18) 0.03 (-0.24, 0.30) 0.15 (-0.13, 0.43)
Sleep: both sleep guidelines (duration and consistency)
 At 1 year of age 307 42 (13.7) -0.17 (-0.48, 0.14) -0.07 (-0.40, 0.25) 0.22 (-0.08, 0.52) 0.23 (-0.09, 0.55)
 At 2 years of age 254 64 (25.2) 0.05 (-0.23, 0.32) -0.01 (-0.31, 0.28) -0.08 (-0.36, 0.20) -0.06 (-0.36, 0.23)
 At 3.5 years of age 298 56 (18.8) 0.03 (-0.23, 0.29) 0.13 (-0.15, 0.41) -0.23 (-0.51, 0.06) -0.06 (-0.34, 0.22)
 At 5 years of age 370 77 (20.8) -0.12 (-0.36, 0.12) -0.17 (-0.42, 0.08) 0.17 (-0.08, 0.42) 0.11 (-0.14, 0.35)
 At 2 or more time points 380 48 (12.6) -0.15 (-0.44, 0.14) -0.07 (-0.37, 0.24) 0.00 (-0.30, 0.29) 0.15 (-0.15, 0.45)
All three guidelines: ≥ 180 min/day LMVPA, no screen time or no more than 60 min, and 11 – 14 h or 10 – 13 h including napsh
 At 1 year of age 297 60 (20.2) -0.07 (-0.34, 0.20) -0.08 (-0.37, 0.21) 0.17 (-0.09, 0.44) 0.08 (-0.20, 0.37)
 At 2 years of age 218 33 (15.1) 0.05 (-0.31, 0.41) 0.08 (-0.30, 0.46) 0.02 (-0.34, 0.37) 0.01 (-0.37, 0.40)
 At 5 years of age 365 134 (36.7) -0.05 (-0.26, 0.16) -0.02 (-0.24, 0.20) 0.12 (-0.10, 0.34) 0.07 (-0.15, 0.28)
  1. aMean difference (95% CI) estimated using regression models adjusted for randomised group, sex, maternal education, household deprivation, primiparous, and BMI z-score at 5 years of age, in units of standard deviations
  2. bProportions who met the first physical activity guideline at 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age were too high to allow estimation of mean differences (94.1, 97.1, and 98.4%, respectively)
  3. cSecond physical activity guideline applies only to children aged 3 – 5 years
  4. dNo screen time (1 – 2 years) or 60 min maximum screen time (3 – 5 years). Not measured at 3.5 years
  5. eNot being restrained in a car seat or stroller for > 60 min at a time, on at least 3 days a week (1 – 2 years). The proportion who met this guideline at 2 years of age was too high to allow estimation of mean differences (96.8%). Not measured at 3.5 years
  6. f11 – 14 h (1 – 2 years) or 10 – 13 h (3 – 5 years). The proportion who met this guideline at 2 and 3.5 years of age and at 2 or more time points was too high to allow estimation of mean differences (92.9, 95.6, and 92.6% respectively)
  7. gHaving a consistent sleep time or consistent wake time defined as within-person standard deviation of < 30 min
  8. hThe proportion who met this guideline at two or more time points was too low to allow estimation of mean differences (9.7%)
  9. Bold figures denote P < 0.05