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Table 5 Meeting 24-h movement behavior guidelines through early childhood and inhibitory control at five years (n = 463)

From: Adherence to 24-h movement behavior guidelines and psychosocial functioning in young children: a longitudinal analysis

  n N (%) who met guideline Statue at 5 years of age Heads-toes-knees-shoulder at 5 years of age
Standardised mean difference (95% CI)a for those who met the guideline compared to those who did not Median difference (95% CI)b for those who met the guideline compared to those who did not
Physical activity: ≥ 180 min/day LMVPAc
 At 1 year of age 287 111 (38.7) 0.03 (-0.22, 0.28) -2.3 (-10.0, 5.5)
Physical activity: ≥ 180 min/day LMVPA including 60 min energetic playd
 At 3.5 years of age 293 180 (61.4) 0.12 (-0.12, 0.35) 9.0 (1.4, 16.5)
 At 5 years of age 372 304 (81.7) 0.25 (-0.01, 0.52) 1.4 (-7.6, 10.4)
 At both 3.5 and 5 years of age 261 142 (54.4) 0.24 (0.00, 0.49) 7.3 (-0.9, 15.6)
Sedentary time: no screen time or no > 60 mine
 At 1 year of age 277 174 (62.8) 0.08 (-0.18, 0.33) 1.3 (-6.0, 8.6)
 At 2 years of age 200 33 (16.5) -0.21 (-0.59, 0.18) 4.0 (-7.6, 15.7)
 At 5 years of age 367 146 (39.8) 0.15 (-0.07, 0.36) -1.0 (-7.5, 5.6)
 At 2 or more time points 296 80 (27.0) 0.02 (-0.24, 0.28) 5.3 (-2.4, 13.1)
Sedentary time: not being restrained for > 60 min at a timef
 At 1 year of age 277 246 (88.8) 0.06 (-0.33, 0.46) 5.7 (-5.5, 16.9)
Sedentary time: no screen time or no > 60 min AND not being restrained for > 60 min at a time
 At 1 year of age 277 159 (57.4) 0.08 (-0.17, 0.33) 2.5 (-5.0, 10.0)
Sleep: 11 – 14 h or 10 – 13 h including napsg
 At 1 year of age 280 235 (83.9) -0.06 (-0.40, 0.27) -5.9 (-15.7, 3.9)
 At 5 years of age 360 316 (87.8) 0.36 (0.05, 0.68) 9.5 (-1.1, 20.2)
Sleep: consistent sleep and wake timesh
 At 1 year of age 280 51 (18.2) 0.37 (0.06, 0.69) 7.3 (-1.9, 16.6)
 At 2 years of age 233 60 (25.7) 0.03 (-0.28, 0.33) -1.4 (-10.3, 7.5)
 At 3.5 years of age 286 58 (20.3) 0.16 (-0.13, 0.45) 6.6 (-3.0, 16.2)
 At 5 years of age 360 82 (22.8) 0.18 (-0.06, 0.43) 5.4 (-3.0, 13.9)
 At 2 or more time points 361 57 (15.8) 0.12 (-0.17, 0.41) 4.5 (-4.5, 13.6)
Sleep: both sleep guidelines (duration and consistency)
 At 1 year of age 280 38 (13.6) 0.30 (-0.05, 0.66) 4.6 (-5.5, 14.8)
 At 2 years of age 233 57 (24.5) 0.02 (-0.29, 0.33) -1.0 (-9.9, 7.9)
 At 3.5 years of age 286 55 (19.2) 0.19 (-0.10, 0.49) 5.6 (-4.1, 15.3)
 At 5 years of age 360 75 (20.8) 0.19 (-0.07, 0.45) 2.9 (-5.8, 11.6)
 At 2 or more time points 361 47 (13.0) 0.08 (-0.23, 0.40) -0.2 (-9.5, 9.2)
All three guidelines: ≥ 180 min/day LMVPA, no screen time or no > 60 min, and 11 – 14 h or 10 – 13 h including napsi
 At 1 year of age 270 53 (19.6) -0.10 (-0.42, 0.22) 1.4 (-8.0, 10.7)
 At 2 years of age 198 31 (15.7) -0.19 (-0.59, 0.21) 5.8 (-6.1, 17.7)
 At 5 years of age 355 129 (36.3) 0.14 (-0.09, 0.36) 1.9 (-5.5, 9.2)
  1. aMean difference (95% CI) estimated using linear regression models adjusted for randomised group, sex, maternal education, household deprivation, primiparous, and BMI z-score at 5 years of age, in units of standard deviations
  2. bMedian difference (95% CI) estimated using quantile regression models adjusted for randomised group sex, maternal education, household deprivation, primiparous, and BMI z-score at 5 years of age, scores range from 0 (less inhibitory control) to 60 (more inhibitory control)
  3. cProportions who met the first physical activity guideline at 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age were too high to allow estimation of mean differences (93.6, 96.9, and 98.4%, respectively)
  4. dSecond physical activity guideline applies only to children aged 3 – 5 years
  5. eNo screen time (1 – 2 years) or 60 min maximum screen time (3 – 5 years). Not measured at 3.5 years
  6. fNot being restrained in a car seat or stroller for > 60 min at a time, on at least 3 days a week (1 – 2 years). The proportion who met this guideline at 2 years of age was too high to allow estimation of mean differences (98.0%). Not measured at 3.5 years
  7. g11 – 14 h (1 – 2 years) or 10 – 13 h (3 – 5 years). The proportion who met this guideline at 2 and 3.5 years of age and at 2 or more time points was too high to allow estimation of mean differences (92.3, 95.5, and 92.5% respectively)
  8. hHaving a consistent sleep time or consistent wake time defined as within-person standard deviation of < 30 min
  9. iThe proportion who met this guideline at two or more time points was too low to allow estimation of mean differences (9.8%)
  10. Bold figures denote P < 0.05