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Table 2 Association of average DM across childhood (intercept) and increase of DM over time (slope) with metabolic syndrome score and its components in children and adolescents

From: Media use trajectories and risk of metabolic syndrome in European children and adolescents: the IDEFICS/I.Family cohort

Metabolic outcomes DM use    Analysis populationa   Accelerometer –sample b
   N Crude β (95%CI) N Adjusted β (95%CI) a N Adjusted β (95% CI) b Adjusted β (95% CI) c
z_WC d Intercept 10,301 0.33 (0.28, 0.39) 10,153 0.15 (0.11, 0.19) 4258 0.19 (0.13, 0.26) 0.19 (0.12, 0.25)
Slope   -0.05 (-0.40, 0.29)   0.19 (-0.04, 0.43)   0.26 ( -0.10, 0.63) 0.26 (-0.10, 0.63)
z_BP e Intercept 10,099 0.04 (0.01, 0.08) 9409 0.04 (0.00, 0.07) 4073 0.02 (-0.03, 0.08) 0.02 (-0.03, 0.07)
Slope   -0.05 (-0.27, 0.16)   0.09 (-0.10, 0.30)   0.18 (-0.13, 0.49) 0.16 (-0.14, 0.47)
z_TRG Intercept 7398 0.11 (0.07, 0.15) 6193 0.08 (0.03, 0.12) 2683 0.06 (-0.01, 0.13) 0.06 (-0.01, 0.13)
Slope   0.17 (-0.08, 0.44)   0.02 (-0.24, 0.30)   0.01 (-0.40, 0.42) 0.00 (-0.41, 0.41)
z_HDL-c Intercept 7766 -0.10 (-0.14, -0.06) 6506 -0.08 (-0.12, -0.04) 2857 -0.07 (-0.14, -0.002) -0.07 (-0.14, -0.00)
Slope   -0.35 (-0.63, -0.06)   -0.28 (-0.54, -0.02)   -0.32 (-0.72, 0.07) -0.33 (-0.73, 0.06)
z_HOMA Intercept 6293 0.16 (0.11, 0.22) 3435 0.12 (0.05, 0.19) 1688 0.15 (0.05, 0.26) 0.15 (0.04, 0.25)
Slope   0.19 (-0.13, 0.51)   0.64 (0.21, 1.08)   0.58 (-0.01, 1.18) 0.59 (0.00, 1.19)
z_MetS Intercept 5770 0.16 (0.11, 0.21) 2973 0.07 (0.02, 0.13) 1476 0.07 (-0.01, 0.15) 0.06 (-0.02, 0.14)
Slope   0.14 (-0.15, 0.44)   0.54 (0.20, 0.88)   0.51 ( 0.04, 0.97) 0.49 (0.02, 0.95)
  1. a Models are adjusted for age (continuous), sex, pubertal status, HDAS, snack consumption, parental ISCED, observation period, (age at follow-up – age at baseline), country and baseline z-scores of the respective outcome. Bold significance is provided via confidence limits
  2. b Models are based on the accelerometer sample and are adjusted for same confounders as in the main analysis. N varied due to missing values for each outcome
  3. c Models based on sample with accelerometer data are further adjusted for MVPA, SED and valid accelerometer wear time
  4. d WC- waist circumference, BP-blood pressure, TRG- triglycerides, HDL-c– high density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA- homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, MetS- metabolic syndrome, DM- digital media
  5. e Models for the z-scores of BP, HDL-c, TRG and HOMA-IR are additionally adjusted for z-score of WC at the last measurement point. The number of participants varied for metabolic outcomes due to missing values